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Global Development Issues 101: The Connection Between Gender Equality and Development

Foreword


International development remains a central topic in academic dialogues, particularly when explored through the lenses of Public Administration and International Relations. This field delves into the delicate equilibrium between a country’s internal growth objectives and its external diplomatic engagements. The focus is on how nations aim to enhance their economic position and the quality of life for their residents, a reflection of their global stature and internal prosperity.


From an academic perspective, development is defined by the myriad ways nations navigate their economic and societal progress. Even though the importance of development is universally accepted, the outcomes are diverse across countries, and shaped by varying factors. This variance in outcomes underscores the multifaceted nature of the factors that underlie developmental stagnation for certain countries, while others grow and thrive.


To comprehensively apprehend the essence of development, an exhaustive exploration of its historical antecedents is essential. Additionally, a meticulous examination of classical developmental theories holds paramount importance. Furthermore, an acute cognizance of the strategies employed to address global challenges becomes indispensable in the context of mitigating issues such as poverty and inequality.


This 101 series consists of seven articles, each dedicated to exploring the concept of development, its various components, and its potential prospects for the future:


6.     Global Development Issues 101: The Connection Between Gender Equality and Development

7.     Global Development Issues 101: Achieving Sustainable Development and the SDG

 


Global Development Issues 101: The Connection Between Gender Equality and Development


In the preceding chapter of Global Development Issues 101, the article navigated the interactions between culture and institutions, elucidating their impact on national development. Culture embodies the beliefs, customs, and values that permeate through generations, building the collective psyche and aspirations of a society (Guiso, Sapienza & Zingales, 2006). Its enduring nature provides a sense of continuity; yet culture is not static, it undergoes subtle shifts and transformations over time, constantly influenced by internal and external forces (Guiso, Sapienza & Zingales, 2006).


Conversely, institutions are the formal and informal structures that regulate and govern societal behavior, providing the necessary frameworks for collective organization and interaction (North, 1990). While formal institutions wield considerable influence through codified rules and regulations, it is the informal institutions that often demonstrate greater adaptability and responsiveness to dynamic socio-political contexts (North, 1990; De Soysa & Jütting, 2007). These informal institutions, deeply embedded within cultural norms, serve as conduits for social cohesion, conflict mediation, and adaptive responses to changing circumstances (De Soysa & Jütting, 2007; Yerznkyan, Gassner & Kara, 2017). Thus, the symbiotic relationship between culture and institutions unveils an interplay that transcends mere coexistence, spreading through societal structures and norms (De Soysa & Jütting, 2007; Yerznkyan, Gassner & Kara, 2017). Additionally, their impact reaches into structural transformations, where cultural norms and institutional frameworks intersect to foster development (North, 1990; Guiso, Sapienza & Zingales, 2006; De Soysa & Jütting, 2007; Yerznkyan, Gassner & Kara, 2017).


However, to achieve sustainable and inclusive development, it is essential to adopt a holistic approach that takes into account a multitude of interconnected factors (Johnsson-Latham, 2007; Mikkola & Miles, 2007; Leach, Mehta & Prabhakaran, 2016). While economic growth and infrastructure development are often at the forefront of development agendas, addressing underlying issues such as gender inequality is equally essential (Johnsson-Latham, 2007; Mikkola & Miles, 2007; Leach, Mehta & Prabhakaran, 2016). Gender inequality permeates all aspects of society, affecting access to education, healthcare, economic opportunities, and political participation (Mikkola & Miles, 2007; Leach, Mehta & Prabhakaran, 2016). Thus, achieving gender equality is not only a matter of social justice but also a prerequisite for sustainable development (Johnsson-Latham, 2007). The forthcoming article delves into the relationship between gender equality and sustainable development, shedding light on the profound impacts of gender disparities on socio-economic progress. Furthermore, it delves into the complex challenges hindering the realization of gender equality, including cultural norms, institutional barriers, and systemic discrimination. By examining these issues in-depth, the article aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the multifaceted nature of gender equality and its significance in the broader context of development.




Unraveling the Concept of Gender and Gender Identity

Gender, as a subject of scholarly inquiry, transcends mere academic discourse, permeating societal structures and norms, thereby profoundly influencing the experiences and opportunities of individuals (Mikkola & Miles, 2007; Leach, Mehta & Prabhakaran, 2016). Historically and cross-culturally, gender has served as a fundamental determinant of power dynamics and social roles, with women often marginalized and relegated to subordinate positions in comparison to men (Mikkola & Miles, 2007). The multifaceted disparities faced by women encompass various domains, including access to education, employment, and decision-making authority (Mikkola & Miles, 2007). Cultural traditions and norms play a significant role in perpetuating these inequities, confining women to traditional gender roles and constraining their participation in broader societal spheres (Mikkola & Miles, 2007). Consequently, women are frequently denied the same opportunities for advancement and self-determination as their male counterparts, perpetuating cycles of stagnation and underdevelopment within communities (Mikkola & Miles, 2007).


However, as societies progress, there emerges a heightened awareness of the need to challenge entrenched gender norms and strive for greater equality (Mikkola & Miles, 2007; Leach, Mehta & Prabhakaran, 2016). The increasing assertion of women in diverse fields reflects a broader societal demand for equal representation and opportunities for development (Mikkola & Miles, 2007; Leach, Mehta & Prabhakaran, 2016). This shift towards inclusivity and empowerment is not only a matter of social justice but also holds profound implications for fostering sustainable development and prosperity within societies (Mikkola & Miles, 2007; Leach, Mehta & Prabhakaran, 2016). Gender equality, as a concept, requires changes in attitudes, policies, and behaviors to promote fairness and equity for all individuals, irrespective of gender (Mikkola & Miles, 2007; Leach, Mehta & Prabhakaran, 2016). It demands the dismantling of systemic barriers to opportunity and the interrogation of stereotypes that perpetuate inequality (Mikkola & Miles, 2007). By embracing gender equality as a fundamental principle, academic discourse can contribute significantly to the progress of societies, fostering innovation, progress, and collective well-being (Mikkola & Miles, 2007; Leach, Mehta & Prabhakaran, 2016). The expectation for gender equality has become increasingly paramount for every nation (Mikkola & Miles, 2007; Leach, Mehta & Prabhakaran, 2016). Achieving gender equality is not merely a matter of upholding human rights; it demands the implementation of mechanisms to safeguard the rights of all individuals (Leach, Mehta & Prabhakaran, 2016). This action entails the recognition and support of dominant institutions, and also the active involvement of every member of society (Leach, Mehta & Prabhakaran, 2016).


Central to this endeavor is the collective movement and mobilization of women, which serves to challenge traditional gender stereotypes and advocate for their inclusion across all spheres of society (Leach, Mehta & Prabhakaran, 2016). Indeed, gender equality represents a fundamental shift away from traditional stereotypes and discriminatory practices (Mikkola & Miles, 2007; Leach, Mehta & Prabhakaran, 2016). Failing to support this inclusion amounts to a form of discrimination, as underscored by the United Nations (Mikkola & Miles, 2007). Therefore, governments and institutions must prioritize the formulation and implementation of policies and strategies that explicitly address gender disparities (Leach, Mehta & Prabhakaran, 2016). Moreover, it is imperative to recognize that gender equality is not a standalone issue but an integral component of development (Mikkola & Miles, 2007; Leach, Mehta & Prabhakaran, 2016). It catalyzes progress and ensures the sustainability of development efforts (Mikkola & Miles, 2007). Indeed, gender equality is not only important for sustainable development but also a prerequisite for its achievement (Mikkola & Miles, 2007; Leach, Mehta & Prabhakaran, 2016). This realization underscores the interconnectedness of gender equality and development, laying the groundwork for further exploration in the subsequent sections of this article.



Exploring Sustainable Development and Its Prospects

In their 2016 study, researchers Leach, Mehta, and Prabhakaran delved into the relationship between gender equality and sustainable development. The researchers posited that gender equality plays a fundamental role in shaping the understanding and implementation of sustainable development initiatives (Leach, Mehta & Prabhakaran, 2016). Central to their investigation was the definition of sustainability itself. In their paper, the term "sustainable development" is defined as follows: “sustainable development is development that ensures human well-being, ecological integrity, gender equality and social justice, now and in the future” (Leach, Mehta & Prabhakaran, 2016, p. 3). This is the definition that will be adopted for the purposes of this paper.


Sustainable development is a multifaceted concept aimed at fostering overall societal progress across various spheres (Johnsson-Latham, 2007; Mikkola & Miles, 2007; Leach, Mehta & Prabhakaran, 2016). It centers on safeguarding the rights of every individual, enhancing the well-being of populations, and ensuring that any changes made are viable and enduring in the long term (Johnsson-Latham, 2007; Leach, Mehta, & Prabhakaran, 2016). As explained by Johnsson-Latham (2007), sustainable development is not just a goal to be achieved but also a methodology to be employed. It requires development initiatives to fulfill the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (Johnsson-Latham, 2007). This action demands a responsible approach to decision-making, where the actions taken today consider the potential impacts on future generations (Johnsson-Latham, 2007). Given that resources are finite, the duty falls on current generations to safeguard the interests of those yet to come (Johnsson-Latham, 2007). Consequently, it is imperative for society to conscientiously address global social issues both in the present and with an eye toward the future (Johnsson-Latham, 2007). By doing so, society ensures a sustainable trajectory of progress that benefits current and future generations alike (Johnsson-Latham, 2007).


Current society holds significant responsibility for ensuring sustainable development, as emphasized by scholar Johnsson-Latham (2007). However, it is essential to recognize that society is not the sole actor in this endeavor (Johnsson-Latham; 2007; Leach, Mehta, & Prabhakaran, 2016). Sustainability encompasses a complex array of dimensions and can be interpreted and approached in various ways (Leach, Mehta, & Prabhakaran, 2016). Central to the pursuit of sustainable development is the acknowledgment that there exist multiple perspectives on understanding, representing, and addressing it (Johnsson-Latham, 2007; Leach, Mehta, & Prabhakaran, 2016). Moreover, the approach to systems and change can vary significantly (Leach, Mehta, & Prabhakaran, 2016). Beyond local communities, both the public sector and business entities bear responsibility for advancing sustainability goals (Johnsson-Latham, 2007; Leach, Mehta, & Prabhakaran, 2016). With diverse viewpoints and interests, these actors bring unique perspectives to development initiatives (Johnsson-Latham, 2007; Leach, Mehta, & Prabhakaran, 2016). For instance, while local communities may prioritize environmental conservation and social equity, businesses may focus on economic growth and innovation (Leach, Mehta, & Prabhakaran, 2016). Understanding and reconciling these divergent priorities is crucial for effective collaboration toward sustainable outcomes (Johnsson-Latham, 2007; Leach, Mehta, & Prabhakaran, 2016).



Framing, therefore, plays a crucial role, as it shapes narratives surrounding sustainability (Leach, Mehta, and Prabhakaran, 2016). Different framings define problems differently, leading to varying consequences and proposed solutions (Leach, Mehta, & Prabhakaran, 2016). For example, framing an environmental issue as an urgent crisis may prompt immediate action, whereas framing it as a long-term challenge may prioritize strategic planning and investment in sustainable infrastructure (Leach, Mehta, & Prabhakaran, 2016). Awareness of these framing dynamics is essential, given that sustainability issues often involve multiple, contested narratives (Leach, Mehta, & Prabhakaran, 2016). Effecting strategic action within this context is inherently complex (Johnsson-Latham, 2007; Leach, Mehta, & Prabhakaran, 2016). Narratives, institutions, and political-economic processes interact dynamically, influencing pathways toward or away from sustainability (Leach, Mehta, & Prabhakaran, 2016). In this contested landscape, institutions and governments wield authority in steering toward common growth (Johnsson-Latham, 2007; Leach, Mehta, & Prabhakaran, 2016). Nevertheless, the diversity of perspectives and narratives should be appreciated (Leach, Mehta, & Prabhakaran, 2016). It is within this plurality that decision-makers can delve deeply into issues, leveraging diversity to uncover innovative solutions (Leach, Mehta, and Prabhakaran, 2016). Indeed, diversity is a catalyst for finding pathways to sustainability amidst complex challenges and solutions (Leach, Mehta, & Prabhakaran, 2016). Embracing and harnessing this diversity can foster inclusive decision-making processes that drive meaningful progress toward a sustainable future for all (Johnsson-Latham, 2007; Leach, Mehta, & Prabhakaran, 2016).

 

Towards Sustainable Development: An In-Depth Examination of Gender Equality as a Fundamental Component

Sustainable development, as both a method and an ultimate objective, is intricately linked to the protection of human rights, systemic transformations, and the active involvement of diverse stakeholders (Johnsson-Latham, 2007; Mikkola & Miles, 2007; Leach, Mehta & Prabhakaran, 2016). Central to this endeavor is the inclusion of every individual across all sectors of society, ensuring equitable access to support and opportunities (Johnsson-Latham, 2007). Indeed, the foundational principle of equality is indispensable for fostering development (Johnsson-Latham, 2007; Leach, Mehta & Prabhakaran, 2016). Therefore, gender equality stands as a fundamental prerequisite for the sustainability of development, underlining the imperative that every individual is empowered to participate fully in the process  (Johnsson-Latham, 2007; Leach, Mehta & Prabhakaran, 2016). In his exploration of the significance of gender equality for sustainable development, Johnsson-Latham (2007) sheds light on often-overlooked aspects of the differing lifestyles and consumption habits between men and women. These differences subsequently influence their environmental footprint (Johnsson-Latham, 2007). Highlighting these differences, the researcher emphasizes that distinct lifestyles translate into varying environmental impacts (Johnsson-Latham, 2007). For instance, men, due to their higher mobility and increased travel, contribute more significantly to carbon dioxide emissions than women (Johnsson-Latham, 2007). These variations underscore the importance of recognizing gender dynamics in addressing climate change and fostering equal opportunities for sustainable development (Johnsson-Latham, 2007).


Importance of Gender-Based Approaches for Development

The central argument emerges: gender equality is paramount to ensuring equitable opportunities for all individuals (Johnsson-Latham, 2007). By prioritizing this, efforts can be intensified to mitigate climate change and advance sustainable development once inclusive participation is achieved (Johnsson-Latham, 2007). Furthermore, the study underscores how diverse lifestyles impact resource utilization and consumption patterns, highlighting the unequal access to resources and developmental opportunities among different demographics (Johnsson-Latham, 2007). Consequently, there is a call for further research into sustainable consumption and lifestyle practices, particularly concerning gender dynamics (Johnsson-Latham, 2007). This research can inform strategies to achieve sustainable development by integrating gender perspectives into policy frameworks and initiatives (Johnsson-Latham, 2007). Ultimately, bridging the gap in understanding the interplay between gender, consumption patterns, and sustainable development is crucial for crafting effective and inclusive strategies toward a more sustainable future (Johnsson-Latham, 2007).



Moreover, the recognition of the importance of integrating a gender-based approach into sustainable development extends beyond academia (Johnsson-Latham, 2007; Leach, Mehta, & Prabhakaran, 2016). International stakeholders have increasingly prioritized gender equality and the empowerment of women (Grown, Addison, & Tarp, 2016). Gender dimensions and rights have been integral to the UN agenda for decades, becoming central to international commitments (Mikkola & Miles, 2007; Grown, Addison, & Tarp, 2016). This commitment is evident in the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which explicitly include targets related to gender equality and sustainable development (Grown, Addison, & Tarp, 2016). Concurrently, major bilateral and multilateral donors have launched numerous projects aimed at promoting gender equality, particularly in low-income countries (Grown, Addison, & Tarp, 2016). These donor efforts translate into significant transformations in the lives of women, narrowing gender gaps in critical areas (Grown, Addison, & Tarp, 2016). By investing in projects tailored to enhance the empowerment of women and dismantle gender disparities, these initiatives catalyze transformative change, creating pathways for women to access resources, opportunities, and decision-making platforms (Duflo, 2005; Johnsson-Latham, 2007; Mikkola & Miles, 2007; Grown, Addison, & Tarp, 2016; Leach, Mehta & Prabhakaran, 2016).


Consequently, as the empowerment of women and support systems are strengthened, they can make more substantial contributions to global development (Duflo, 2005; Grown, Addison, & Tarp, 2016). This enhanced participation of women in various sectors not only fosters economic growth but also contributes to social progress and environmental sustainability platforms (Johnsson-Latham, 2007; Mikkola & Miles, 2007; Grown, Addison, & Tarp, 2016; Leach, Mehta & Prabhakaran, 2016). Moreover, governments, recognizing the importance of gender equality in achieving sustainable development, are prompted to devise more inclusive and sustainable strategies (Grown, Addison, & Tarp, 2016). By integrating gender perspectives into policies and programs, governments can address the diverse needs and priorities of their populations, fostering more equitable and resilient societies (Johnsson-Latham, 2007; Grown, Addison, & Tarp, 2016).


As emphasized by Grown, Addison, and Tarp (2016, p. 317), gender equality advocates have long been engaged in efforts to reshape the distribution of power, opportunities, and outcomes between women and men, advocating for a fundamental shift in development approaches. This underscores the critical importance of adopting gender-based approaches to sustainable development, as highlighted by Johnsson-Latham (2007), Mikkola and Miles (2007), Grown, Addison, and Tarp (2016), and Leach, Mehta, and Prabhakaran (2016). Indeed, these approaches represent a significant step in the right direction, acknowledging the necessity of addressing gender disparities to achieve sustainable outcomes (Johnsson-Latham, 2007; Mikkola & Miles, 2007; Grown, Addison, & Tarp, 2016; Leach, Mehta & Prabhakaran, 2016). Moreover, the engagement of actors across various levels, from local to international and governmental to non-governmental, is crucial in driving forward this transformative agenda (Johnsson-Latham, 2007; Grown, Addison, & Tarp, 2016; Leach, Mehta & Prabhakaran, 2016). By working collaboratively, these diverse stakeholders can contribute to creating an enabling environment for gender equality and sustainable development (Johnsson-Latham, 2007; Grown, Addison, & Tarp, 2016; Leach, Mehta & Prabhakaran, 2016). This collective effort is essential for change and ensuring that development initiatives are inclusive, equitable, and responsive to the needs of all individuals, regardless of gender (Grown, Addison, & Tarp, 2016).



Initiating changes in institutional practices, as advocated by scholars Grown, Addison, and Tarp (2016), marks a first step toward addressing gender inequalities within development initiatives. Frequently, strategies, programs, and projects lack specificity regarding their gender-related outcomes, necessitating a shift towards a more focused approach that targets identified gaps and inequalities for better outcomes (Grown, Addison, & Tarp, 2016). This approach entails confronting biases and directing efforts toward reducing disparities (Grown, Addison, & Tarp, 2016). Donors play a role in this process by implementing stronger institutional mechanisms to promote collaboration and knowledge-sharing across sectors (Grown, Addison, & Tarp, 2016). Additionally, establishing monitoring systems to assess the achievement of identified outcomes is essential for ensuring accountability and tracking progress (Grown, Addison, & Tarp, 2016).


Enhancing strategies to overcome gender inequality is paramount for fostering sustainable development (Duflo, 2005). This endeavor requires a concerted effort, to recognize the reciprocal relationship between development and gender equality (Duflo, 2005). Development interventions can serve to empower women by providing increased funds, knowledge, support, and opportunities across various dimensions (Duflo, 2005; Grown, Addison, & Tarp, 2016). For instance, in wealthier countries, women often enjoy greater economic and political rights, reflecting the positive influence of development efforts (Duflo, 2005). Therefore, by prioritizing gender equality within development agendas and bolstering support mechanisms, societies can pave the way for more inclusive and sustainable progress (Duflo, 2005; Grown, Addison, & Tarp, 2016).


Challenges Regarding Gender-Based Approaches to Development

Despite the potential benefits, gender-based approaches to development encounter several challenges that demand careful consideration and efforts to overcome them (Duflo, 2005; Grown, Addison, & Tarp, 2016). Chief among these challenges is the persistence of gender biases, as highlighted by Duflo in her policy paper (2005), which are deeply engrained in traditional gender roles upheld by communities and cultures. Changing these mindsets and dismantling stereotypes takes time, making gender equality a long-term goal (Duflo, 2005). Additionally, the effectiveness of gender-focused policies may be called into question due to prevalent speculation and suspicion, further complicating efforts to achieve progress in this area ((Duflo, 2005; Grown, Addison, & Tarp, 2016). Moreover, there is a need to acknowledge that addressing gender disparities requires targeted interventions tailored to specific population groups, as Grown, Addison, and Tarp (2016) emphasized. While such policies may receive support from donors, they also require institutional changes to ensure their effectiveness and sustainability (Grown, Addison, & Tarp, 2016). However, navigating this path toward gender equality and sustainable development is multifaceted, with funding emerging as a critical consideration (Duflo, 2005; Grown, Addison, & Tarp, 2016). Donors, therefore, provide financial support, but they often demand justification and tangible results, underscoring the importance of maintaining cost-benefit ratios in gender-based strategies (Duflo, 2005; Grown, Addison, & Tarp, 2016).



Furthermore, challenges persist in data collection and analysis, particularly at the national and sub-national levels (Duflo, 2005; Grown, Addison, & Tarp, 2016). Despite significant improvements in gender data collection over the past decades, substantial data gaps remain, hindering the assessment and monitoring of aid effectiveness and project success (Grown, Addison, & Tarp, 2016). This is especially evident in cross-country data, where disparities persist, impeding comprehensive and universal statistical analyses (Grown, Addison, & Tarp, 2016). Addressing these data gaps is essential for developing evidence-based policies and interventions that effectively promote gender equality and sustainable development on a global scale (Grown, Addison, & Tarp, 2016).


In a critique of the World Development Report in 2012, Shahra Razavi (2011) underscores both the opportunity embraced and the opportunity missed in addressing gender equality and development. While there are multiple pathways available to advance gender equality for sustainable development, as previously discussed, there exist significant challenges that must be navigated (Razavi, 2011). It is imperative to emphasize the importance of further research into the connection between gender equality and development, particularly within international contexts (Razavi, 2011). Razavi (2011) argues that biases are not confined solely to project implementation but extend to broader spheres, including international policy agendas. In the 2012 World Development Report, there was a notable oversight in addressing the gender biases inherent in macroeconomic policy agendas that shape contemporary globalization (Razavi, 2011). Razavi (2011) contends that the report fell short in engaging with these biases, resulting in an inability to provide a credible and balanced analysis of the challenges facing gender equality in the 21st century. Moreover, the report failed to offer appropriate policy responses to foster more equitable societies (Razavi, 2011). Thus, the commentary of Razavi highlights the need for heightened awareness and research into the gendered dimensions of development policies, particularly at the international level (Razavi, 2011). By addressing these biases and gaps in understanding, policymakers and practitioners can develop more effective strategies to promote gender equality and sustainable development on a global scale (Razavi, 2011).

 

A Conclusive Reflection on Gender and Sustainable Development

This article provides a comprehensive exploration of the intricate relationship between gender equality and sustainable development, highlighting their mutual dependency and the imperative of addressing gender biases to achieve progress. Gender equality is established as a fundamental prerequisite for sustainable development, ensuring that all individuals, regardless of gender, have equal access to opportunities and rights (Johnsson-Latham, 2007; Leach, Mehta & Prabhakaran, 2016). However, traditional gender roles and biases have historically hindered the development of women and girls, underscoring the need for transformative change (Mikkola & Miles, 2007; Leach, Mehta & Prabhakaran, 2016). In this context, sustainable development is contingent upon gender equality, as inclusive progress cannot be realized without the full participation of every individual (Johnsson-Latham, 2007; Leach, Mehta & Prabhakaran, 2016). Conversely, gender equality relies on sustainable development to dismantle barriers and open pathways to rights and opportunities, thereby addressing inequality gaps (Johnsson-Latham, 2007; Mikkola & Miles, 2007; Razavi, 2011; Leach, Mehta & Prabhakaran, 2016). To advance this agenda, gender-based approaches to sustainable development are essential, with contributions from stakeholders at various levels bringing diverse perspectives and strategic solutions (Mikkola & Miles, 2007; Leach, Mehta & Prabhakaran, 2016).



While donors and governments play critical roles in supporting projects and initiatives, there is a pressing need for improved monitoring and development practices to ensure their effectiveness (Duflo, 2005; Johnsson-Latham, 2007; Grown, Addison, & Tarp, 2016). Furthermore, international policy agendas must confront gender biases to seize opportunities and foster inclusive development (Johnsson-Latham, 2007; Razavi, 2011; Leach, Mehta & Prabhakaran, 2016). Through concerted efforts and collaboration, long-term gender equality can be achieved, leading to sustainable development outcomes that benefit society as a whole (Duflo, 2005; Johnsson-Latham, 2007; Mikkola & Miles, 2007; Razavi, 2011; Grown, Addison, & Tarp, 2016; Leach, Mehta & Prabhakaran, 2016). Empowering women and girls to actively participate in all spheres of society will be key to realizing this vision of inclusive and equitable progress (Duflo, 2005; Johnsson-Latham, 2007; Mikkola & Miles, 2007; Razavi, 2011; Grown, Addison, & Tarp, 2016; Leach, Mehta & Prabhakaran, 2016).


Bibliographical References

De Soysa, I., & Jütting, J. (2007). Informal institutions and development: How they matter and what makes them change. Informal institutions. How social norms help or hinder development, 29-43.


Duflo, E. (2005). Gender equality in development. BREAD Policy Paper, 11(4).


Grown, C., Addison, T., & Tarp, F. (2016). Aid for gender equality and development: Lessons and challenges. Journal of International Development, 28(3), 311-319.


Guiso, L., Sapienza, P., & Zingales, L. (2006). Does culture affect economic outcomes?. Journal of Economic perspectives, 20(2), 23-48.


Johnsson-Latham, G. (2007). A study on gender equality as a prerequisite for sustainable development. Report to the Environment Advisory Council, 2.


Leach, M., Mehta, L., & Prabhakaran, P. (2016). Gender equality and sustainable development: A pathways approach. The UN Women Discussion Paper, 13, 2016.


Mikkola, A., & Miles, C. A. (2007). Development and gender equality: Consequences, causes, challenges and cures. HECER – Helsinki Center of Economic Research. Helsinki, Finland.


North, D. (1990). Institutions, institutional change and economic performance. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge


Razavi, S. (2011). World Development Report 2012: Gender equality and development: An opportunity both welcome and missed (an extended commentary). United NationsD Research Institute for Social Development.


Yerznkyan, B., Gassner, L., & Kara, A. (2017). Culture, institutions, and economic performance. Montenegrin Journal of Economics, 13(2), 71-80.


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