top of page

Local Impacts of Global Climate Change

Global warming and climate change, the long-term and unprecedented shift of the earth’s surface temperature and weather patterns, respectively (Hansen et al., 2006; Ring et al., 2012; Wang et al., 2023; Goebbert et al., 2012; Hashim & Hashim, 2016), are “accelerating” (Roggema, 2009, p.2), “dramatic” (Donohoe, 2007, p.44) and “far-reaching” (Scott et al., 2019, p.49). By affecting socio-political, cultural, and economic determinants, it may also challenge society’s ability to adapt and expose vulnerability to growing change (Ford & Ford, 2011, p.3).

At a local level, “[c]limate change is dramatically shifting the way cities interpret and live with their local climate” (Bremer et al., 2020). By 2050, it is estimated that 6.5 billion people will be living in urban areas (ODI, 2018; Mirzahossen & Mohghaddam, 2021, p.24) when the world’s population is projected to reach between 9 and 9.8 billion (Cohen, 2010; Hoornweg & Pope, 2016).

Urbanisation growth will increase the challenges of dealing with natural hazards (Parker, 1995, p.114; Asiedu, 2020), such as flooding, earthquakes, and landslides (Mesta et al., 2022). These “shock events"—sudden and unexpected events that may lead to policy review and change (Bremer et al., 2020; Giordono et al., 2020)—in correlation with non-climatic variables of weak governance, poor urban planning and management, the lack of regulations, and inadequate sewage systems (UNESCO, 2020; Heltberg et al., 2009; Baker, 2011; Birkmann et al., 2021; Major et al., 2011) will further expose the local populace’s vulnerability to disasters and risks. Consequently, climate change “is influencing the way we understand and govern the places we live” (Bremer et al., 2020).

Figure 1: The effects of climate change. The retreat of the Lyell Glacier, Yosemite National Park, California, USA, from 1883 to 2015 (Wikimedia Commons, 2017).

As built environments, cities are witnessing increased flooding (Diez et al., 2011; Sörensen et al., 2016). The city of Bergen, on Norway’s west coast, is prone to flooding due to a combination of climate change, accelerated urbanisation, and the creation of impermeable surfaces that limit the absorption of water and, thereby, increase runoff (Boogaard et al., 2017). There is also the risk of landslides due to the country's mountainous landscape (Braathen et al., 2004). Since the beginning of this century, the city has planned and implemented “far-reaching” (Langeland et al., 2013) climate policies to address the local risks of flooding and landslides to its infrastructure, economy, and buildings caused by the global change in temperature and weather patterns.

Bergen, Norway’s second-biggest city and an international harbour for passengers and trade, is an example of the “local” actively addressing and adapting to a global threat of sea level rises and other natural hazards linked to climate change. Bergen is identified as Europe’s rainiest city (Meze-Hausken, 2005; Venvik & Boogaard, 2020), but flooding in the city centre and landslides in urban areas have shifted its historic cultural identity from a “weather city” to a “climate city” (Bremer et al., 2020).

The main concepts of risk, sustainability, and vulnerability, and their impact on Bergen, will be discussed in this article. Adaptation to climate change is an overriding theme.

In a 2006 report, Levina & Tirpak of the intergovernmental Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) note the numerous, but ambiguous, terms and concepts of adaptation to climate change (Levina & Tirpak, 2006). However, two definitions that could be used in the context of Bergen’s ambitious plans are presented by the United Kingdom Climate Impacts Programme (UKCIP) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The latter defines adaptation as “a process by which strategies to moderate, cope with, and take advantage of the consequences of climatic events are enhanced, developed, and implemented” (UNDP, 2005), while UKCIP defines adaptation as “[t]he process or outcome of a process that leads to a reduction in harm or risk of harm, or realisation of benefits associated with climate variability and climate change” (quoted in Willows & Connell, 2003).

Figure 2: A map of Norway showing the harbour city of Bergen on the country's west coast (Picryl, 2017).

Bergen, Norway

Bergen has been the capital of Vestland County since January 2020, when the former counties of Hordaland, of which Bergen was the administrative capital, and Sogn og Fjordane were merged. As of 2022, the current population of the city and municipality is 289,330 (Bergen Kommune, 2023).

Due to its strategic coastal location, Bergen has built a reputation as a centre for tourism, international trade, and shipping, with the city centre being the cultural, economic, and social focal point. The process of globalisation—the mass flow and exchange of services, goods, and people across national borders (Joshi, 2009) made possible by developments in science, technology, and communication (Archibugi & Iammarino, 2002, p. 99; Hrynyshyn, 2002, p. 84)—has transformed Bergen into a global hub. This, and by linking its cultural identity to the changing climate (Bremer & Johnson, 2023), has resulted in the city adopting global concerns and thereby becoming one of the leading “global climate governance actors” (Bremer et al., 2020).

Known as the Gateway to the Fjords, Bergen is surrounded by an imposing physical geography of the 16-kilometre Byfjorden fjord and the Seven Mountains (Norwegian: De syv fjell). The fjord systems have created natural entrances to the city’s inner harbour and have become world-famous, making the port one of Europe’s most visited cruise ship harbours.

Bergen is a rainy city, but climate change means it faces the risk and challenge of dealing with rain and seawater. The city experiences an average annual precipitation of 2,250 mm (88 inches) (Seither et al., 2016; Boogard et al., 2017) due to the surrounding mountains, which cause moist North Atlantic air to undergo orographic lift—air mass forced from a low elevation to a higher elevation as it moves over rising terrain. This level of precipitation, making Bergen Europe’s wettest city (Bremer et al., 2020), is projected to increase across Norway due to continued warming (Konstali & Sorteberg, 2022), thereby placing pressure on the city’s surface water runoff and stormwater management (Venik et al., 2020, p.324).

Figure 3: A rainy day in Bergen, Norway, in 1990 (Knutsen, 1990).


The socioeconomic risks from climate change are transboundary (Volz et al., 2021, p.3; Terton et al., 2023) and interconnected locally and globally by shared natural resources, food and energy supplies, biodiversities, and livelihoods (Benzie et al., 2013; Davis et al., 2016; Werrell & Femia, 2016; Berninger et al., 2022).

A global impact of climate change on the local is “the future risk of weather-related damage to buildings” (Scheel & Hinnerichsen, 2012, p.365) from extreme weather events. Highlighting this global vulnerability of old structures to future climatic changes (Haugen et al., 2018) are the historically significant wooden Bryggen buildings, a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1979 on Bergen’s Vågan harbour, which have become a focal point of the city’s future sea level and flood risks (Guttorp & Thorarinsdottir, 2018; source). The Bryggen basements are experiencing increased groundwater flooding from overwhelmed drainage systems (Venik et al., 2020, p.325), causing the decay of the building’s wooden foundations and their considerable subsidence (Kaslegard, 2011, p.20).

The term risk society emerged in the 1990s through the works of the German sociologist Ulrich Beck and his British counterpart Anthony Giddens, mainly in response to growing environmental and technological concerns.

In his influential analysis, "Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity", Beck presented his ideas of risk society as “a systematic way of dealing with hazards and insecurities induced and introduced by moderni[s]ation itself” (Beck, 1992, p.21). Modernisation, in this sense, being the interaction and relationship with the new technologies transforming societies (Cohen, 1997), has created new risks very different from the old. Similarly, Giddens believes the risk society to be forward-looking, which “lives in the future rather than the past” (Giddens & Pierson, 1998, p.94).

Figure 4: The historic Bryggen in Bergen, Norway (Šmerkl, 2009).

Bergen considers itself a leader in adapting to future risks (Bergen Kommune, 2016), reshaping its economic, cultural, and social identity (Langeland, 2013). Extreme precipitation is forecast to occur more frequently, posing further pressure on the city’s unsustainable “car-culture” transport infrastructure (Bremer et al., 2020) and “vulnerable” sewage system (Strehl et al., 2018), coping with a growing population of 1.1% per year (OECD, 2022). By the middle of this century, the authorities have projected a city population of roughly 355,000 (Bergen Kommune, 2016).

The consequences of global climate change will vary at the local level (Bierbaum, 1998; Gremillion, 2011) and will expose society’s socioeconomic vulnerabilities. The estimated sea rise will cause extensive damage to Bergen’s sewage and transport systems (Langeland, 2011; Guttorp & Thorarinsdottir, 2018), and tourism will be adversely affected by flooding and sea level rise, making the city’s quays unable to accommodate ships and cruise liners (ESPON, 2011, p.18).

For the Bergen authorities and Bergensers, the city’s inhabitants, changes in weather patterns this century have already resulted in the loss of human life, notably the Hatlestad Slide in September 2005, a landslide caused in part by heavy rainfall that killed three people (Langeland, 2011; Stohl et al., 2008).

While Norway’s national government has overriding authority, the country’s municipalities possess autonomy in many areas of economic, social, and welfare policy. Until the 2030 Agenda, passed by the Norwegian government in early 2021, a lack of a national plan to tackle climate change highlighted the importance of community-based adaptation—using local knowledge, communication, and empowerment—to respond and adapt to the risks and impacts of climate change (Ayers & Forsyth, 2009; Reid et al., 2009). Actions taken by Bergen, such as the adoption of emission reductions in 1996, the first city in the country to do so (Bremer et al., 2020), the appointment of a Head of Climate section (currently Stina Ellevseth Oseland) (Oseland & Haarstad, 2022), and the adoption of “Green Strategy“ in 2016 (Norwegian: Grønn Strategi) (Bergen Kommune, 2016), demonstrate the importance and influence local authorities can play in climate policy-making (Fuhr et al., 2018; Schrage et al., 2023).

Figure 5: The Hatlestad Slide landslide occurred in rural Bergen in September 2005 (Wikimedia Commons, 2006).

To become “Norway’s greenest city” (Wågsæther et al., 2020), the municipality is implementing extensive adaptation methods and sustainable development to protect its economic and social assets. Bergen has a long-term goal of becoming a greenhouse gas-neutral city, corresponding to the national objective for 2030, and was also a participant in the 2008-14 Cities of the Future programme (Norwegian: Framtidens Byer), which involved Norway’s 13 biggest cities.

Local plans include protecting Bryggen from increased flooding, highlighting the growing attention placed on cultural “non-economic loss” (Pearson et al., 2021) threatened by climate change, and a flood management plan that, in part, requires stormwater collection to be incorporated in developments (Groven, 2014), the first Norwegian city to do so.


Bergen’s proximity to mountains means its economic centre is vulnerable to landslides, which are expected to become more frequent due to increased precipitation (Venvik et al., 2020). The award-winning human geography professor William N. Adger defines vulnerability as “the stress to which a system is exposed, its sensitivity, and its adaptive capacity” (Adger, 2006, p. 269). Characteristics of natural hazards include their magnitude, frequency, duration, and spatial extent (IPCC, 2007; Angeli et al., 2022). Recent local events and future predictions are evidence that, for Bergen, any vulnerabilities in a system, notably a history of poor risk assessment and urban planning, can have long-term consequences (Adger, 2006, quoted in Folke, 2006, p.253).

On September 14, 2005, heavy rainfall caused the Hatlestad Slide, a landslide in the rural Bergen hillside neighbourhood of Hatlestad Terrasse, causing damage and death (Langeland et al., 2011). The event forced the country to review and implement environmental, housing, and emergency policies (Bremer et al., 2020, quoted in Krauß & Bremer, 2020). In line with policy at the time, the area had not been surveyed for landslide risk (Gonzalez et al., 2013).

However, the Norwegian Ministry of Environment has acknowledged that a challenge is defining and creating an understanding among the various experts regarding risk and vulnerability: “[e]ach of these environments has its 'tribal language',"  and it was, at times, “a demanding task to find a common communications platform” (Ministry of Environment, 2010).

Figure 6: Bryggen flooded (Misje, n.d.).

Although the traditional housing in central Bergen is constructed with wood and therefore efficient against the current levels of rain (Mjörnell & Olsson, 2019), the combination of narrow alleyways (Norwegian: smaug) and tall buildings, creating a canyon effect, poses numerous hazards to public safety and health (Miles et al., 2023). The impact of climate change on wood deterioration is described as “non-linear behaviour” (Brischke et al., 2010), with the changes caused by the weather being unpredictable. Technical considerations, such as material quality and age, determine these wooden buildings’ vulnerability to damage and deterioration (Larsen & Marstein, 2000).

Despite the Hatlestad Slide, homes are still situated on the hillsides surrounding Bergen (Langeland, 2011), and the city centre populace and infrastructure are vulnerable to landslides from the surrounding Seven Mountain and subsidence from increased precipitation (Venvik et al., 2020). Due to the physical geography of west Norway, there is a shortage of suitable land in Bergen for construction (Meinert et al., 2019; Koning et al., 2020), so the future population growth of the dense city will only exacerbate the search for safe building land.

Figure 7: A narrow street of wooden housing in Bergen, Norway (Picryl, 2016).

Scientific knowledge is linked to effective adaptation to climate change and understanding its consequences (Knutti, 2019; Owen, 2020). Norway strongly believes in and promotes scientific and technological solutions to climate change (Nordø et al., 2023; Bird, 2017).

Launched in 2013, there has been a joint Norwegian agency, Landslide Forecasting and Warning Service, publishing daily updates and warnings online (Krøgli et al., 2018), and early warning landslide surveillance systems are being developed (Solheim et al., 2022). However, since the Hatelstad Slide in 2005, mapping in the country is still considered inadequate (Sandboe et al., 2019) or hastily organised (Bremer & Johnson, 2023, p.88).

The future risk of landslides in Bergen’s mountainous area requires risk and vulnerability analysis—an assessment to identify a system's weaknesses, risks, and vulnerabilities—not just a reliance on historical data. The Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection (Norwegian: Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap, DSB) considers the rarity of extreme events to make this data “deficient” (Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection (DSB), 2014), especially since the country’s historical records of landslide events are incomplete (Ganerød et al., 2023).


Sustainable development is a “ubiquitous” principle (Henderson, 2011) with multiple definitions (Chasek, 2012, p. 254). The United Nations’ World Commission on Environment and Development, commonly known as the Brundtland Commission, chaired by Norway’s former Labour prime minister Gro Harlem Brundtland (1981, 1986–1989, and 1990–1996), defined sustainable development in 1987 as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (United Nations General Assembly, 1987).

Figure 8: Gro Harlem Brundtland, Chair of the Brundtland Commission and former Prime Minister of Norway, photographed in 1989 (World Economic Forum, 1989).

While not a universally accepted definition because it lacks a definite timeframe and scientific and factual evidence to set clear global goals (McChesney, 1991; Parris & Kates, 2003), it could be used at a local level to describe the aspirations and environmental concerns of Bergen; the city’s sustainability plans seek to address the challenge of climate change without “strangling the modern living city” (Bergen Kommune, 2011) and thereby preserve the economic and social centre of Norway’s west coast. Furthermore, institutes in Bergen have actively involved children—the “future generations“ of the 1987 definition—in sustainable development learning programmes and activities (Bremer et al., 2022).

Water was a major issue of the 2008–14 Cities of the Future programme, and water supply and sewage have been identified by the city’s Vulnerability Committee as “critical infrastructure” (Bergen Kommune, 2008, p.36). However, the unpredictability of future weather events means Bergen cannot be fully prepared for the consequences of climate change; former Commissioner Lisbeth Iversen (2003–2013) of Bergen’s government acknowledged that the systems within the city’s surface water management have reached their limit of capacity “and many will have problems in the future due to climate change” (Iversen, 2011).

Another example is the city’s attempts to relieve the transport system of its traffic problems, especially in light of future population growth, by promoting alternative forms of transport, such as its light railway system (opened in 2010 and expanded in 2013), buses, and cycling routes (Norwegian Ministry of Local Government & Administration, 2015; Bremer et al., 2020; Remme et al., 2022). Urban development, though, in the outer areas is generating an increased need for transport links across the region (Bergen Kommune, 2008, p.6).

Furthermore, the transportation of goods to and from the harbour through the city (Seither et al., 2016) means transport policy changes could be difficult to implement in the centre, the economic hub of Bergen, where the council has prioritised pedestrianisation and public transport as part of a 50% densification plan (Bergen Kommune, 2016; Koning et al., 2020). Bergen faces major environmental challenges linked to transportation: road traffic is now the dominant source of local air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, accounting for 56% of the city’s carbon emissions (Bergen Kommune, 2020, quoted in Wågsæther et al., 2022). Future health risks to a large section of the population are a possibility.

Bibliographical references

Adger, W.N. (2006). Vulnerability. Global Environmental Change, 16(3), 268-281.

Angeli, S. de., Malamud, B.D., Rossi, L., Taylor, F.E., Trasforini, E., Rudari, R. (2022). A multi-hazard framework for spatial-temporal impact analysis. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 73.

Archibugi, D. & Iammarino, S. (2002). The globalization of technological innovation: definition and evidence. Review of International Political Economy, 9(1), 98–122.

Asiedu, J.B. (2020). Reviewing the argument on floods in urban areas: a look at the causes. Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management, 15(1), 24-41.

Ayers, J. & Forsyth, T. (2009). Community based adaptation to climate change. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 51(4), 22-31.

Baker, J.L. (2011). Climate change, disaster risk, and the urban poor: cities building resilience for a changing world (Vol. 2): Summary (English) (68358). Retrieved from

Beck, U. (1992). Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity. London: Sage Publications.

Benzie, M., Wallgren, O., & Davis, M. (2013). Adaptation without borders?: How understanding indirect impacts could change countries’ approach to climate risks. Stockholm Environment Institute.

Bergen Kommune (2008). Cities of the future: cities with the lowest possible greenhouse gas emissions and a good urban environment. Retrieved from

Bergen Kommune (2011). The City is Bergen. Retrieved from

Bergen Kommune (2016). Green strategy - climate and energy action plan for Bergen 2016. Norway: Bergen Municipality. Retrieved from

Bergen Kommune. (2020). Handlings og Økonomiplan 2021-2024 for Bergen Kommune [Trade and economy plan for Bergen municipality]. Bergen: Bergen Municipality.

Bergen Kommune (2023). Fakta om Bergen. Retrieved from

Berninger, K., Lager, F., Botnen Holm, T., Tynkkynen, O., Klein, R. J. T., Aall, C., Dristig, A., Määttä, H. and Perrels, A. (2022). Nordic Perspectives on Transboundary Climate Risk: Current Knowledge and Pathways for Action. Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen.

Bierbaum, R. M. (1998). Preface. Climate Research, 11(1), 1-3.

Bird, T. (2017). Nordic action on climate change. Retrieved from

Birkland, T. A. (1998). Focusing events, mobilization, and agenda setting. Journal of Public Policy, 18(1), 53-74.

Boogaard, F., Kluck, J., Bosscher, M., & Schoof, G. (2017). Flood model Bergen Norway and the need for (sub-) surface innovations for extreme climatic events (INXCES). Procedia Engineering, 209, 56-60.

Braathen, A., Blikra, L.H., Berg, S.S., & Karlsen, F. (2004). Rock-slope failures in Norway; type, geometry and hazard. Norwegian Journal of Geology, 84, pp. 67-88.

Bremer, S., Johnson, E., Fløttum, Kverndokk, K., Wardekker, A., & Krauß, W. (2020). Portrait of a climate city: How climate change is emerging as a risk in Bergen, Norway. Climate Risk Management, 29.

Bremer, S. & Johnson, E. (2023). Carefully transforming our institutions: how they change, how they listen. In Haarstad, H., Grandin, J., Kjaerås, K., & Johnson, E. (Eds.) Haste: The Slow Politics of Climate Urgency (pp.83-93). London: UCL Press.

Brischke, C.; Rapp, A.O.; Hasan, M.; Despot, R. (2010). Impact Of Climate Change on Wood Deterioration – Challenges and Solutions For Cultural Heritage and Modern Structures. Paper presented at IRG/WP 41th Annual Meeting, Biarritz, France. Retrieved from

Chasek, S.P. (2012). Sustainable Development. In Snarr, T.M. & Snarr, N.D. (Eds.) Introducing Global Issues (pp. 253-273). Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc.

Cohen, M.J. (1997). Risk society and ecological modernisation: alternative visions for post-industrial nations. Futures, 29(2), 105-119.

Cohen, J.E. (2010). Population and climate change. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 154(2), 158-182.

Davis, M., Benzie, M., & Barrott, J. (2016). Transnational climate change impacts: An entry point to enhanced global cooperation on adaptation? Stockholm Environment Institute.

Diez, J.J., Esteban, M.D., Paz, R., López-Gutiérrez, J.S., Negro, V., & Monnot, J.V. (2011). Urban Coastal Flooding and Climate Change. Journal of Coastal Research SI 64 (Proceedings of the 11th International Coastal Symposium), 205-209. Szczecin, Poland.

Donohoe, M. (2007). Global Warming: A Public Health Crisis Demanding Immediate Action. World Affairs: The Journal of International Issues, 11(2), 44–58.

Folke, C. (2006). Resilience: The emergence of a perspective for social-ecological systems analyses. Global Environmental Change, 16(3), 253-267.

Ford, J.D. & Ford-Berrang, L. (2011). Introduction. In Ford, J.D. & Ford-Berrang, L. (Eds.) Climate Change Adaptation in Developed Nations: From Theory to Practice (pp.3-21). Retrieved from

Fuhr, H., Hickmann, T., & Kern, K. (2018). The role of cities in multi-level climate governance: local climate policies and the 1.5 °C target. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 30, pp.1-6.

Ganerød, A.J., Lindsay, E., Fredin, O., Myrvoll, T.-A., Nordal, S., & Rød, J.K. (2023). Globally vs. Locally Trained Machine Learning Models for Landslide Detection: A Case Study of a Glacial Landscape. Remote Sensing, 15(4), 895.

Giddens, A. & Pierson, C. (1998). Conversations With Anthony Giddens: Making Sense of Modernity. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.

Giordono, L., Boudet, H. & Gard-Murray, A. (2020). Local adaptation policy responses to extreme weather events. Policy Sciences, 53, 609-636.

Goebbert, K., Jenkins-Smith, H. C., Klockow, K., Nowlin, M. C., & Silva, C. L. (2012). Weather, Climate, and Worldviews: The Sources and Consequences of Public Perceptions of Changes in Local Weather Patterns. Weather, Climate, and Society, 4(2), 132-144.

Gonzalez, J.J., Bø, G., Johansen, J.E. (2013). A System Dynamics Model of the 2005 Hatlestad

Slide Emergency Management. Paper presented at the 10th International ISCRAM Conference - Baden-Baden, Germany.

Gremillion, T.M. (2011). Setting the foundation: climate change adaptation at the local level. Environmental Law, 41(4), 1221-1253.

Groven, K. (2014). Climate adaptation and institutional change in Norwegian stormwater management. Paper presented at the Third Nordic International Conference on Climate Change Adaptation, Copenhagen, Denmark. Retrieved from

Guttorp, P. & Thorarinsdottir, T.L. (2018). How to save Bergen from the sea? Decisions under uncertainty. Significance, 15(2), 14-18.

Harbitz, C.B., Glimsdal, S., & Kveldsvik, V. (2014). Rockslide tsunamis in complex fjords: From an unstable rock slope at Åkerneset to tsunami risk in western Norway. Coastal Engineering, 88, pp.101-122.

Hansen, J., Sato, M., Ruedy, R., Lo, K., Lea, D. W., & Medina-Elizade, M. (2006). Global Temperature Change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103(39), 14288–14293.

Hashim, J. H., & Hashim, Z. (2016). Climate Change, Extreme Weather Events, and Human Health Implications in the Asia Pacific Region. Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health, 28(2), 8S-14S.

Haugen, A., Bertolin, C., Leijonhufvud, G., Olstad, T., & Broström, T. (2018). Geosciences, 8(10), 370.

Henderson, G. E. (2011). Rawls & Sustainable Development. McGill International Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy / Revue Internationale de Droit et Politique Du Développement Durable de McGill, 7(1), 1-31.

Hoornweg, D. & Pope, K. (2016). Population predictions for the world’s largest cities in the 21st century. Environment & Urbanization, 29(1), pp.195-216.

Hrynyshn, D. (2002). Technology and globalization. Studies in Political Economy, 67(1), 83-106.

IPCC (2007). Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Parry, M.L., Canziani, O.F., Palutikof, J.P., van der Linden, P.J., & Hanson, C.E. (Eds.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Jentsch, A., Kreyling, J., & Beierkuhnlein, C. (2007). A New Generation of Climate-Change Experiments: Events, Not Trends. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 5(7), 365-374.

Joshi, R.M. (2009). International Business. Oxford University Press.

Kaslegard, A.S. (2011). Climate Change and Cultural Heritage in the Nordic Countries. Retrieved from

Kaufmann, M., Lewandowski, J., Choryński, A., & Wiering, M. (2016). Shock events and flood risk management: a media analysis of the institutional long-term effects of flood events in the Netherlands and Poland. Ecology and Society, 21(4).

Kingdon, J. W. (1995). Agenda, alternatives and public policies. Harper Collins, New York: New York, USA.

Knutti, R. (2019). Closing the Knowledge-Action Gap in Climate Change. One Earth, 1(1), 21-23.

Koning, R.E. de, Roald, H.J., & Nes, A. van. (2020). A Scientific Approach to the Densification Debate in Bergen Centre in Norway. Sustainability, 12(21), 9178.

Konstali, K. & Sorteberg, A. (2022). Why has Precipitation Increased in the Last 120 Years in Norway? JGR Atmospheres, 127(5).

Krauß, W. & Bremer, S. (2020). The role of place-based narratives of change in climate risk governance. Climate Risk Management, 28, 100221.

Langeland, O., Medby, P., & Langset, B. (2011). ESPON climate: climate change and territorial effects on regions and local economies. Retrieved from

Langeland, O., Klausen, J.E., & Winsvold, M. (2013). Climate Change Adaptation Policy in Bergen: Ideals and Realities. In Schmidt-Thomé, P. & Klein, J. (Eds.) Climate Change Adaptation Policy in Bergen: Ideals and Realities (pp.95-109). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Larsen, K.E. & Marstein, N. (2000). Conservation of Historic Timber Structures (Butterworth-Heinemann Series in Conservation and Museology). London: Butterworth-Heinemann Publishing.

Levina, E. & Tirpak, D. (2006). Adaptation to Climate Change: Key Terms. Retrieved from

Major, D.C., Omojola, A., Dettinger, M., Hanson, R.T., & Sanchez-Rodriguez, R. (2011) Climate change, water, and wastewater in cities. In Rosenzweig, C., Solecki, D., Hammer, S.A., & Mehrotra, S. (Eds.) Climate Change and Cities: First Assessment Report of the Urban Climate Change Research Network (pp.113-143). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Meinert, M., Thomassen, S.T., Nes, A., van, Roald, H.-J., & Skovsgaard, T.L. (2019). How children use urban space in two different neighbourhoods in Bergen, Norway. Paper presented at Proceedings of the 12th Space Syntax Symposium (12SSS), Beijing, China. Retrieved from

Mesta, C., Cremen, G., & Galasso, G. (2022). Urban growth modelling and social vulnerability assessment for a hazardous Kathmandu Valley. Scientific Reports, 12(1).

Meze-Hausken, E. (2007). Seasons in the sun - weather and climate front-page news stories in Europe's rainiest city, Bergen, Norway. International Journal of Biometeorology, 52(1), 17-31.

McChesney, I.G. (1991). The Brundtland Report and sustainable development in New Zealand.

Miles, V., Esau, I., & Pettersson, L. (2023). Using web GIS to promote stakeholder understanding of scientific results in sustainable urban development: A case study in Bergen, Norway. Sustainable Development, 1-13.

Mirzahossein, H. & Alamdar, S.A. (2021). Increasing citizen's livability in the future city: responsive city, a remarkable solution. Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management, 16(3), 23-41.

Mjörnell, K. & Olsson, L. (2019). Moisture Safety of Wooden Buildings - Design, Construction and Operation. Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering, 24(1), 29-35.

Mythen, G., Burgess, A., & Wardman, J.K. (2018). The prophecy of Ulrich Beck: signposts for the social sciences. Journal of Risk Research, 21(1), 96-100.

Nordø, Å.D., Andersen, G., & Merk, C. (2023). Technology will save the climate! Attitudes towards Norway’s climate policy in four social groups. Kiel, Germany: Kiel Institute for the World Economy. Retrieved from

Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection (DSB). (2014). National Risk Analysis 2014. Retrieved from

Norwegian Ministry of Local Government & Administration. (2015). Third United Nations Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development (Habitat III): Norwegian Regional Report. Retrieved from

Norwegian Ministry of the Environment. (2010). Slides and Avalanches. Retrieved from 

ODI. (2018). 10 things to know about the impacts of urbanisation.

OECD (2022). OECD Regions and Cities at a Glance 2022: Norway. Retrieved at

Oseland, S.E. & Haarsta, H. (2022). Displacing Conflicting Goals in Planning for Sustainability? Insights from Three Norwegian Cities. Planning Theory & Practice, 23(2), 233-247.

Owen, G. (2020). What makes climate change adaptation effective? A systematic review of the literature. Global Environmental Change, 62, 102071.

Parker, D. J. (1995). Floods in Cities: Increasing Exposure and Rising Impact Potential. Built Environment (1978-), 21(2/3), 114-125.

Parris, M.T. & Kates, W.R. (2003). Characterizing and Measuring Sustainable Development. iSciences, July, 1-2.

Pearson, J., Jackson, G., McNamara, K.E. (2023). Climate-driven losses to knowledge systems and cultural heritage: a literature review exploring the impacts on indigenous and local cultures. The Anthropocene Review, 10(1), pp.343-366.

Redclift, M. (1987). Sustainable Development: Exploring the Contradictions. London: Routledge.

Reid, H., Alam, M., Berger, R., Cannon, T., Huq, S., & Milligan, A. (2009). Community-based adaptation to climate change: an overview. In Ashley, H., Kenton, N., & Milligan, A. (Eds.) Participatory Learning and Action 60: Community-based adaptation to climate change (pp.11-39).

Remme, D., Sareen, S., & Haarstad, H. (2022). Who benefits from sustainable mobility transitions? Social inclusion, populist resistance and elite capture in Bergen, Norway. Journal of Transport Geography,105, 103475.

Ring, M.J, Lindner, D., Cross, E.F., & Schlesinger, M.E. (2012). Causes of the Global Warming Observed since the 19th Century. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, 2(4), 401-415.

Roggema, R. (2009) Adaptation to Climate Change: A Spatial Challenge. Retrieved from

Sandboe, K.S.. Devoli, G., & Lilleøren, K.S. (2019). Regional mapping and frequency-magnitude analysis in the evaluation of landslide warnings in Hordaland, Norway. Paper presented at EGU General Assembly 2019, Vienna, Austria. Retrieved from

Schrage, J., Haarstad, H., & Hidle, K. (2023). The strategic value of contradictions: exploring the practices of climate planning in Bergen, Norway. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 1-19.

Scheel, I., Hinnerichsen, M. (2012). The Impact of Climate Change on Precipitation-related Insurance Risk: A Study of the Effect of Future Scenarios on Residential Buildings in Norway. Geneva Pap Risk Insur Issues Pract, 37, 365-376.

Scott, D., Hall, C., & Gössling, S. (2019). Global tourism vulnerability to climate change. Annals of Tourism Research, 77, 49-61.

Seither, A., Ganerød, G.V., Beer, H. de, Melle, T., & Eriksson, I. (2016). City case study of Bergen. Retrieved from 10.13140/RG.2.1.1357.0803

Solheim, A., Kalsnes, B., Strout, J., Piciullo, L., Heyerdahl, H., Eidsvig, U., & Lohne, J. (2022), Landslide risk reduction through close partnership between research, industry, and public entities in Norway: Pilots and case studies. Front. Earth Sci., 10:855506. 10.3389/feart.2022.855506

Stohl, A., Forster, C., & Sodemann, H. (2008). Remote sources of water vapor forming precipitation on the Norwegian west coast at 60°N - a tale of hurricanes and an atmospheric river. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113.

Strehl, C., Kristvik, E., & Koti, J. (2018). Finding cost-effective solutions for climate change adaptation in Bergen using extensive climate, economic and spatial data. In Loggia, G., Freni, G., Puleo, V., & and De Marchis, M. (Eds.) HIC 2018 (EPiC Series in Engineering, vol. 3) (pp. 2028-2032).

Sörensen, J., Persson, A., Sternudd, C., Aspegren, H., Nilsson, J., Nordström, J., Jönsson, K., Mottaghi, M., Becker, P., Pilesjö, P., Larsson, R., Berndtsson, R., & Mobini, S. (2016). Re-thinking urban flood management – time for a regime shift. Water, 8(8).

Terton, A., Qi, J., & Tadgell, A. (2023). Transboundary Climate Risks and the National Adaptation Planning Process. International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD).

United Nations Development Programme. (2005). Adaptation to Climate Change Guidance to Programming Opportunities. Paper presented at Energy and Environment Practice Meeting 27-28 September, Bratislava, Slovak Republic. Retrieved from

United Nations General Assembly. (1987). Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. Transmitted to the General Assembly as an Annex to document A/42/427 - Development and International Co-operation: Environment. Retrieved from

UNESCO. (2020). The impact of climate displacement on the right to education (ED-2020/WS/32). Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from

Venvik, G., Bang-Kittilsen, A., & Boogaard, F.C. (2020). Risk assessment for areas prone to flooding and subsidence: a case study from Bergen, Western Norway. Hydrology Research, 51(2), pp.332-328.

Venvik, G. & Boogaard, F.C. (2020). Infiltration Capacity of Rain Gardens Using Full-Scale Test Method: Effect of Infiltration System on Groundwater Levels in Bergen, Norway. Land, 9(12), 520.

Volz, U., Campiglio, E., Espagne, E., Mercure, J.-F., Oman, W., Pollitt, H., Semieniuk, G., & Svartzman, R. (2021). Transboundary Climate-related Risks: Analysing the Impacts of a Decarbonisation of the Global Economy on International Trade, Finance, and Money. Paper presented at the 9th IMF Statistical Forum.

Wang, L., Wang, L., Yang, L., & Wang, J. (2023). A century-long analysis of global warming and earth temperature using a random walk with drift approach. Decision Analytics Journal, 7, 100237.

Werrell, C. E., & Femia, F. (2016). Climate Change, the Erosion of State Sovereignty, and World Order. The Brown Journal of World Affairs, 22(2), 221-235.

Willows, R.I. & Connell, R.K. (Eds.) (2003) Climate adaptation: Risk, uncertainty and decision-making. UKCIP Technical Report. Oxford: UKCIP. Retrieved from

Wrigley, E. A. (1972). The Process of Modernization and the Industrial Revolution in England. The Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 3(2), 225-259.

Wågsæther, K., Remme, D., Haarstad, H., & Siddharth, S. (2022). The justice pitfalls of a sustainable transport transition. Environment and Planning F, 1(2-4). pp.187–206.

Visual sources

1 則留言

ricky sams
ricky sams

Do you need Mobile App Development Assignment Help? Our knowledgeable mobile app development tutors are here to help. We can assist you with all facets of your development coursework, ranging from fundamental ideas to more complex subjects. From proofreading and editing to assignment writing services, we provide a comprehensive range of services. Get going now to earn the grades you merit!

Author Photo

Ewan Waugh

Arcadia _ Logo.png


Arcadia, has many categories starting from Literature to Science. If you liked this article and would like to read more, you can subscribe from below or click the bar and discover unique more experiences in our articles in many categories

Let the posts
come to you.

Thanks for submitting!

  • Instagram
  • Twitter
  • LinkedIn
bottom of page