The major factor of the World, “science”. Since the creation of the World, it has been developed day by day by a group of people who are as important as science. They are cited as “scientists”. The endeavor of them is to unfold the real world and to constitute a more livable world. Their claims were not important for science but also important for other disciplines and the world as well. However, their remarks generally were not taken care of. Effective scientists always settled and worked in big and stronger empires and states in Europe over the years, due to possibilities of using materials. Science & scientists have always been blamed by several parts of the community such as clergymen, conservatives, ruling class, etc. However, despite these sorts of obstacles, scientists had left a massive impact throughout the World, especially between 16th to 21th centuries thanks to some predecessor events like ”Fall of Constantinople” & “Renaissance”. Galileo’s claim, Newton’s physics, Darwin’s thesis & Einstein’s accomplishments were proofs of this idea. To sum up, it can be clearly said that Galileo, Newton, Darwin & Einstein were important figures of science and they affected the world very crucially between the 16th to 21th centuries.
Two of the major & effective scientists of the world were “Galileo & Newton”. “Galileo Galilei” who lived and worked in Rome, Italy was the capital of Catholic church. Although, restrictions of the Pope, he worked upon astronomy and mathematics. Galileo, who followed Copernicus' theory of the world, claimed that “the earth is round”. It was enough to be suspicious of the Pope because it threatened the authority of the Church and encouraged the people to get rid of bigotry. Losing the support of the people and permitting people to enlighten themselves means losing the powerful authority of the Church not only Italy, but also the whole Christian world. To prevent this danger, Galileo was judged by the Church and forced to accept old-tradition “flat world” beliefs. However, this action could not stop the the effect of Galileo in long term, because in Muslim “Ottoman Empire” it can be seen that “İbrahim Müteferrika” who was the first owner of “printing press”, the precious books that include Galileo’s ideas and thoughts were printed. His works, claims and proofs had left a massive impact throughout both the world and scientists. Next, “Isaac Newton” the explorer of “Law of Gravity”. He lived after the time of Galileo, in which bigotry decreased but was still dominant. It ensured him to work easier. His exploration of Gravity was realized through an apple which today’s famous company Apple Inc. took their name from. His works became the masterpiece for scientists of “Enlightenment Period”. Newton, who defined “universal laws” that applied to all matter and motion, was precise of enlightenment both scientists and thinkers. For instance, “woman” enlightenment period scientist “Marquise de Chatelet Lomont” worked upon his explorations. Thanks to Newton’s explorations of science, a major part of enlightenment period thinkers developed themselves and they had left a big impact on the world. Consequently, two of the essential & efficient scientists in the World were “Galileo & Newton”. These men who were opposed to bigotry towards the church and its extreme power used their logic to constitute a more livable world. Thus, their impact throughout the world was undisputed.
The other two of the influential & substantial scientists of the World were “Darwin & Einstein”. Charles Darwin, who lived and worked in Britain, exhibited to the world one of the striking factors of humankind, the“evolution”. Darwin, who encountered lots of conservative movement and obstructions, was “longing to see exotic fauna, in 1831 he signed on for a four-year voyage on a surveying vessel bound for Latin America and the South Seas.”. Thanks to this abroad, he tried to examine the ancestors of humankind towards the world. Darwin, who handled the evolution theory, was quite sure about his idea that humankind has been transformed for years. However, for all divine religions (Christianity, Islam, Jewish) Human was created perfectly, and it was never transformed for a time. Because of strict religious laws, it seems an unsuccessful movement, however, the impacts of this theory that explained below, can be seen later. Though he never implied a kind of opinion, thanks to Darwin’s human evolution claim, “Euro-centric” thinking and understanding of “superiority” in European people occurred, so colonization activities reached a higher degree because Darwin strengthened. He affected the Late Modern Period and constituted a new sub-discipline to understand human races. Following, “Albert Einstein” who was a Jew that fled Nazi Germany. He dealt with Physics. Without doubt, he could be the most important scientist not only of the “Late Modern Period” but also of all time. His works changed both the science and world systems. For example, the exploration of Atomic bomb was the most significant event that changed the fate of World War II and the whole world undisputedly. Einstein who sophisticated the works of his predecessors like “relativity” ensured that all kinds of disciplines and religions focus on his theory. Even today, his works are debated among several clerics. Moreover, thanks to his respectable contributions to “Quantum physics & Relativity”, today’s physics reached its top point, physicians of this period do their work upon Einstein’s theories. As a result, Charles Darwin and Albert Einstein were quite important scientists who affected the world very crucially. Their unique achievements influenced both the world & science extremely.
Eventually, science is sophisticated by scientists who are so crucial for the world system. Their works which make the world a more livable place, modified the world system several times. Although they encountered some kind of obstacles, the explorations, works of them took a very significant part of the world. These four scientists that I analyzed were major characters of science between 16th century to 21th century. World is developing thanks to science, and it will continue for a long time
1- Tignor, Robert, Jeremy Adelman, Stephen Aron, Peter Brown, Benjamin Elman, Stephen Kotkin, Xinru Liu, Suzanne Marchand, Holly Pittman, Gyan Prakash, Brent Shaw and Michael Tsin. Worlds Together, World Apart, New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 211