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Survey of Italian Literature 101: Italian Literature Today

Foreword

The Survey of Italian Literature 101 series aims to offer readers a complete overview of the rich and diverse Italian literary tradition. Through summary and description, this series will provide readers with an understanding of the works from different literary periods and from diverse regions of Italy. It will cover both the classics and works by contemporary authors as well as those from lesser-known areas, providing a broad introductory survey to those who are interested in learning more about Italian culture and the country's literary works.


The Survey of Italian Literature 101 series is divided into eight chapters:


Survey of Italian Literature 101: Italian Literature Today

Contemporary Italian literature has produced several acclaimed authors whose works have achieved both commercial success and critical acclaim. Their novels have explored various themes and historical periods, often presenting the reader with a fresh perspective on familiar stories. These writers have contributed to a rich literary tradition that captivates readers worldwide. From historical fiction to bildungsroman, the Italian literary landscape offers various genres and styles that reflect the country’s complex history and culture. This article will analyse some of the most significant works of contemporary Italian literature, exploring how these novels have reshaped the literary canon and contributed to a deeper understanding of Italian culture and society.


Figure 1: Books by Elena Ferrante at the Più Libri Più Liberi publishing fair at the convention centre La Nuvola in Rome, Italy (Granati, 2019)

Italian Literature Today

Italian literature has long been associated with the concept of national identity. From its earliest days, literature discussions have been intertwined with creating a unified community, eventually becoming national. Literature became a crucial instrument in unifying the Italian people and served as a counterbalance to other defining factors, such as politics, ethnicity, or economics. This literary Italy exists alongside, and sometimes in opposition to, the broader national identity, showcasing the power of literature in shaping cultural and societal values.


From Dante’s De vulgari eloquentia to famous works such as Francesco Petrarca’s Italia mia and Giacomo Leopardi’s All’Italia, numerous texts have addressed the relationship between Italian literature and collective identity. Italian literature has long been intertwined with constructing a shared national identity, with leading writers such as Gabriele D’Annunzio, Giuseppe Ungaretti, Italo Calvino, and Umberto Eco presenting as interpreters of national sentiment throughout the twentieth century (Genesini, 2022).


According to Genesini (2022), one significant issue within contemporary literature is the proliferation of publishing houses and the concentration of economic publishing power in two major corporations, BUR (Rizzoli) and Mondadori. As a result, many individuals have begun to publish novels, poetry collections, dramas, and other works without necessarily possessing great literary merit or representing the broader literary community. This trend is attributed, in part, to the ease of entering the field of journalism, which has become a significant mass phenomenon for information since the 1950s. In addition to this cultural preservation of Italian Western identity, the 2000s saw the rise of the “best seller” publishing phenomenon, characterised by novels that achieve immediate and widespread popularity, often lacking in quality, and geared solely toward the financial gain of the publisher and author (Genesini, 2022).


Figure 2: Old bookshop In Venice, Italy (Wojtkowski, 2012)

Aldo Busi and Michele Mari

Although they share a profession, Aldo Busi and Michele Mari could not be more different in their approach to writing. While Busi’s work is marked by its irreverence and provocation, Mari’s writing is characterised by its sensitivity and introspection.


One of the most prolific contemporary Italian writers, Aldo Busi (1948), gained notoriety for his outspoken anti-clerical positions on a range of important issues, including homophobia, machismo, the subordinate condition of women in society, the excessive dramatisation of the individual’s sexual sphere, and the excessive influence of the Church in politics and institutions of a State that, according to the Constitution, should be secular. These themes are recurrent in his literary production, where social and civil issues intersect with the question of the evolution and potential impoverishment of the Italian language (Cavalli, 2008).


In 1984, Aldo Busi published his debut novel, Seminario sulla gioventù, a Bildungsroman and travel narrative that follows the protagonist, Barbino, on a journey between Italy, France, and England. The novel portrays Barbino’s movements away from his native country, which he finds suffocating, and his periodic returns home before fleeing again (Cavalli, 2008).


Figure 3: Aldo Busi at Piazza dei Cinquecento during the 2008 Roma Pride (Masciovecchio, 2008)

On the opposite side of the novel approach and known for his extraordinary literary inventiveness, Michele Mari (1955) is regarded as one of the greatest contemporary Italian writers. His novels cover a wide range of themes, including childhood, memory, historical truth, and fantastic invention. Mari’s earliest works explore the theme of duality through a blend of Gothic and Baroque elements, such as in Di bestia in bestia and La stiva e l’abisso, as well as in the Leopardian apocrypha, as seen in Io venìa pien d’angoscia a rimirarti. These works are characterised by the intersection of literature and “black” or monstrous imagination (Mazza Galanti, 2011).


The debut novel by Michele Mari, Di bestia in bestia (1989), is a work that demonstrates the author’s extraordinary inventiveness and his penchant for exploring themes such as childhood, memory, historical truth, and fantastic invention. Divided into two parts and an epilogue, the novel is narrated by a character known only as the Professor. It depicts a castle in an icy landscape, where grotesque and fantastic creatures lurk in the dungeons. The story also features a vast library, a precious collection of books that must be fiercely guarded at all costs. One of the primary themes explored in the novel is the constant struggle between culture and nature, which renders every human being an oxymoron. The novel highlights the contradictions inherent in the experience of culture, which can be simultaneously perceived as a source of enlightenment and salvation, as well as an impediment to life, pride, and mourning. Overall, Di bestia in bestia represents an early example of Mari’s signature style, characterised by his ability to blend elements of the fantastic with philosophical and existential themes (Gialloreto, 2015).


Figure 4: Michele Mari at the final of the Chiara Award (2022)

Niccolò Ammaniti and Tiziano Scarpa

Comparing the works of Niccolò Ammaniti and Tiziano Scarpa reveals two distinct voices in contemporary Italian literature.


Niccolò Ammaniti (1966) is a notable Italian writer, director, and screenwriter. He rose to prominence as one of the leading figures of the “Cannibals,” a group of writers that emerged in Italy in the mid-1990s. Some scholars have described this literary movement as a vast and far-reaching phenomenon in the Italian cultural landscape. Ammaniti’s national recognition came in 2001 with the publishing of his novel Io non ho paura, which won the Viareggio Narrativa Award. Two years later, the book was adapted into a film by Gabriele Salvatores, and Ammaniti received the Flaiano Award for his screenplay (Vassalli,1996).


Io non ho paura (2001) depicts a boy’s loss of innocence in a small Southern Italian town in 1978. The story follows the protagonist’s discovery that his father and other townspeople have kidnapped a boy from a wealthy Northern family. Ammaniti’s work has garnered positive reviews from literary critics in Italy and English-speaking countries. Ellen Nerenberg, a scholar at Wesleyan University, argues that Ammaniti utilises first-person narration and a childlike style to accentuate the protagonist’s innocence. She suggests that the novel’s central theme is the solidarity of youth, exemplified by the bond that forms between the protagonist and the kidnapped child. Additionally, she contends that another theme of the novel is the individual’s resistance to family and societal norms, demonstrated in Michele’s rejection of the violence and negativity prevalent in his environment and his father’s actions (Nerenber, 2012).

Figure 5: Cover of ‘Io non ho paura’ (Schofield, 2001)

Awarded the prestigious Strega and the SuperMondello in 2009 for his novel Stabat Mater (2008), Tiziano Scarpa (1963) established himself as one of Italy’s most successful contemporary authors. The novel’s success can be attributed to its vivid descriptions, well-developed characters, and intricate plot, which takes place in 18th-century Venice and explores the plight of young orphans. The main character, 16-year-old violinist Cecilia, is confined to the orphanage and haunted by conversations with her unknown mother and a deathly apparition that taunts her desire for freedom. Scarpa’s narrative style in Stabat Mater is characterised by earthy and vivid descriptions that create a realistic setting for Venice, the convent, and the music that Cecilia plays, reminiscent of old-school fairy tales rather than modern whimsical literature (Montgomery, 2018). With his works being translated into various languages, Scarpa has gained an international reputation for his literary output. In his early career, Scarpa delved into the world of comics and, since then, has worked with numerous newspapers and magazines. He has also authored several essays and creative pieces on various artists, demonstrating his versatility as a writer with a style characterised by its strong sense of place, which allows readers to immerse themselves in the world of his stories (Tiziano Scarpa, 2022).


Figure 6: Cover of ‘Stabat Mater’ (Sorensen, (n.d.) )

Eduardo De Filippo and Dario Fo

Eduardo De Filippo and Dario Fo are two of the most well-known playwrights in the history of Italian theatre. While both artists were active in the 20th century, their styles and approaches to theatre are distinct and different.


With a prolific career spanning several decades, Eduardo De Filippo (1900-1984) was a prominent Italian playwright, actor, director, screenwriter, and poet. Recognised as one of the most significant figures in Italian theatre, he contributed significantly to theatre and cinema’s comedy and drama genres. De Filippo wrote a vast repertoire of plays, many of which he also directed and performed. Furthermore, others were translated and staged by other theatre companies both in Italy and internationally. Alongside other notable Italian playwrights such as Luigi Pirandello, Dario Fo, and Carlo Goldoni, Eduardo De Filippo remains one of the most revered and frequently performed Italian dramatists on the global stage (Eduardo De Filippo, n.d.).


Natale in casa Cupiello (1931) and Filumena Marturano (1946) are well-known works that offer a deep insight into the poverty-stricken lives of ordinary Neapolitan families. The works are marked by a distinct blend of irony and the legacy of the Commedia dell’Arte tradition, reflected in the portrayal of characters that have significantly impacted Italian theatre. De Filippo’s incorporation of the Christmas comedy Natale in casa Cupiello into the cultural landscape as the primary ritual event to be attended during the festive season is a testament to his influence on the popular imagination (Antonucci, 1981).

Figure 7: Poster for ‘Natale in casa Cupiello’ (Compagnia “MASANIELLO”, 2015)

Dario Fo (1926-2016) was a multifaceted Italian artist renowned as a playwright, actor, director, writer, author, illustrator, painter, set designer, activist, and comedian. He is best known for his theatrical works that employ the comic stylistic features of the Italian commedia dell’arte, which have been widely performed and acclaimed worldwide. Fo was a versatile theatre man who excelled as an actor, director, writer, set and costume designer, and impresario of his own company. His theatrical texts are celebrated for their political and social satire and his staunch left-wing political commitment. Recognising his outstanding contribution to literature, the author was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1997 (Bisicchia, 2003).


Dario Fo’s theatrical works were often characterised by his championing of the underprivileged social classes. This was evident in his famous play Mistero buffo (1969). He adapted the nonsensical speech of the grammelòt and the jokes of medieval jesters from the Bergamo region to satirise and ridicule even the most potent oppressors, including sovereigns and popes. Fo’s approach to political and social commentary through comedy and satire, as exemplified by Mistero buffo, proved to be a significant departure from conventional theatrical conventions and a major influence on contemporary Italian theatre (Bisicchia, 2003).


Figure 8: Carlo Lizzani directs a scene from the movie ‘Lo svitato’ with Dario Fo (1959)

Umberto Eco and Valerio Massimo Manfredi

Regarding writing style and genre, Umberto Eco and Valerio Massimo Manfredi share a common interest in ancient cultures, but differ in their approaches. Eco’s writing is characterised by a scholarly and intellectual approach to literature and history, often featuring an intricate web of references to classical and medieval cultures. In contrast, Manfredi’s writing style combines historical research with literary flair to create vivid and engaging fictionalised accounts of ancient events and figures. While Eco focuses on the Greco-Roman world and the Cistercian Middle Ages, Manfredi has written about various historical events, including the Second Persian War and the life and conquests of Alexander the Great.


Essayist and intellectual Umberto Eco (1932-2016) was known for his significant contributions to semiotics, medieval aesthetics, linguistics, and philosophy. His prolific career included numerous essays and books, including successful novels. Eco’s approach to scholarship was characterised by a “rediscovery” of classical and medieval cultures, focusing on the ancient Greco-Roman world and the Cistercian Middle Ages. Additionally, he was deeply committed to advancing higher education, investing heavily in developing university faculties and courses (Eco, 2021).


Eco’s most famous work is the novel Il nome della rosa (1980), which showcases his historical and narrative skills in a story with a thriller-ironic background, set in 1327 in a monastery in northern Italy. The novel revolves around the mysterious deaths of the Benedictine abbey’s monks and the ensuing investigation by the Inquisition until the discovery of the actual perpetrator. Eco’s “rediscovery” of this world results from revising ancient stories and historical characters, paying homage to figures such as the real-life inquisitor Bernardo Gui and the leading monk Guglielmo da Baskerville, who, in turn, pays homage to Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes. The novel’s success was attributed to the numerous citations related to the historical period and the meticulous reconstruction of medieval space and time. In addition, Eco’s profound appreciation for the symbolic element of the library as an inexhaustible source of knowledge also contributed to the novel’s popularity (Pischedda, 1994).

Figure 9: ‘The Name of the Rose’ (in homage to Umberto Eco's novel) (Girometti, 1982)

Valerio Massimo Manfredi (1943) is a renowned Italian archaeologist, journalist, and writer, celebrated for his compelling works that revolve around the ancient classical-Greek world. With a blend of historical research, imagination, and literary flair, Manfredi recreates historical events in the ancient world engagingly and accurately. His books are known for their rich detail and attention to historical accuracy, which reflects his extensive knowledge of archaeology and classical studies. He has achieved commercial success and worldwide recognition, making him one of Italy’s most distinguished contemporary writers (Treccani, s.v. “Valerio Massimo Manfredi,” n.d.).


Lo scudo di Talos (1988) is a historical novel, which depicts the events of the Second Persian War (480 BC) through the story of a young disabled Spartan warrior named Talos. Despite being set in a broader temporal context, the novel vividly portrays the Spartan society and culture, particularly its harsh treatment of the weak and infirm. Talos, spared from being killed at birth due to illness, grows up in the countryside, nurturing his dream of achieving glory in war. The novel follows his journey from a young, aspiring warrior to a seasoned fighter who ultimately plays a pivotal role in the Persian Wars. Through the story of Talos, Manfredi sheds light on the complex themes of social norms, disability, and personal struggle and provides insight into ancient Greece’s military tactics and strategies (Valerio Massimo Manfredi, n.d.-a).


Lultima Legione (2002) and the subsequent film adaptation of the same name, released in 2007, feature a solid historical element. The novel tells the story of Romulus Augustus, the last Roman emperor, and his encounters with the legendary magician Merlin. The historical narrative dominates and influences the story’s progression, highlighting Manfredi’s skilful incorporation of historical facts and mythology into his storytelling. The novel’s success inspired the film adaptation, which received positive reviews (Valerio Massimo Manfredi, n.d.-b).

Figure 10: Cover of ‘L’ultima legione’ (Tarlazzi, 2002)

Larmata perduta (2007) is another historical novel that explores the epic return journey of the Greek mercenary army of Ten Thousand Spartans from Persia in 401 BC. The novel presents a gripping narrative that intertwines historical facts with fictionalised elements, weaving the soldiers’ journey with their struggles, hopes and fears (Valerio Massimo Manfredi, n.d.-c).


Another of Manfredi’s notable works is the triad of Alexandros (1998), a series of novels that provides a vivid, fictionalised account of the life and conquests of Alexander the Great. Drawing on his extensive knowledge of ancient history, archaeology, and literature, Manfredi creates a compelling narrative that brings to life the complex character of Alexander, his military campaigns, and the cultural and social context of the time. The triad of Alexandros consists of three novels: Il figlio del sogno (1998), Le sabbie di Amon (1998), and Il confine del mondo (1998) (Valerio Massimo Manfredi, n.d.-d, n.d.-e, n.d.-f).


Figure 11: Covers of the ALÈXANDROS trilogy (Manfredi, n.d.)

Paolo Giordano

Born in Turin in 1982, Paolo Giordano is a multi-talented Italian writer with a doctorate in theoretical physics. After working as a journalist for many years, he rose to literary fame with his debut novel La solitudine dei numeri primi (2008), which earned him the prestigious Strega Award in 2008 (Paolo Giordano, n.d.).


Apart from garnering critical acclaim, La solitudine dei numeri primi obtained great commercial success, having sold over a million copies worldwide and translated into thirty languages. This bildungsroman follows the parallel lives of two protagonists, Alice and Mattia, and the painful events that shape their childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Giordano’s use of twin prime numbers, with Mattia represented by the number 2 760 889 966 649 and Alice by 2 760 889 966 651, symbolises their proximity and inability to connect due to the even number separating them. Through their stories, Giordano paints a portrait of the “opulent bourgeoisie” who provide their children with material comfort, yet leave them emotionally isolated (Bovenzi, 2020).


Figure 12: Separation II (Munch, 1869)
Oriana Fallaci, Alda Merini, and Elena Ferrante

Oriana Fallaci, Alda Merini, and Elena Ferrante are respected Italian women authors who have contributed to Italian literature and impacted their respective fields. Fallaci was an outstanding journalist, writer, and activist who explored love, family, and ethical and moral justice themes. Merini, on the other hand, was an intense, passionate, and mystic writer renowned for her deeply personal poems that explore inner turmoil and emotional struggles. Lastly, Elena Ferrante’s works explore the evolution of the female condition, the complexities of female friendships, and other themes, such as the role of literature and intellectuals during social and political unrest. While Fallaci focused on non-fiction, Merini and Ferrante are known for their fictional works, which differ in literary genre and style. In addition, Merini’s poems are highly emotional and introspective and reflect her personal experiences. At the same time, Ferrante’s works are character-driven and explore social and political themes through the lens of female relationships.


The first Italian woman to travel to the front lines as a special envoy, Oriana Fallaci (1929-2006), was a distinguished Italian journalist, writer, and activist who significantly impacted her field. Her work as a war correspondent for LEuropeo in Vietnam saw her visit the country twelve times in seven years. She reported on the conflict and criticised all sides, including the Vietcong, communists, Americans, and South Vietnamese. In her chronicles, she meticulously recorded the lies and atrocities, alongside instances of heroism and humanity, that define any war. Furthermore, she regarded the conflict as an irrational and barbaric enterprise. Her first-hand experiences were detailed in her book, Niente e così sia, published in 1969. Additionally, Fallaci played a pivotal role in the 1960s during the fight for women’s liberation and conducted numerous investigations and interviews with historical figures (Il Post, 2015).


Figure 13: Oriana Fallaci interviews Ayatollah Khomeini (1979)

In her outstanding literary work, Lettera a un bambino mai nato (1975), Fallaci explores the existential quandary of the decision to bring a child into the world while delving into themes of love and family. The book is composed as a dramatic monologue, voiced by an unnamed woman who views motherhood as a significant responsibility, rather than a mere obligation. The central concern of the protagonist is the ethical and moral justification of bringing a child into a violent, inimical, and dishonest world. Nevertheless, the unborn child can choose whether to be born. The process of reaching a verdict involves a panel of seven jurors, including the parents, the doctor, and the employer. Through this process, the woman is eventually convicted (Il Post, 2015).


In her later years, Fallaci wrote two significant works, the first of which is the novel Insciallah (1990), which chronicles the experiences of the Italian army deployed to Lebanon following the 1983 Beirut attacks in three parts. Against the backdrop of the 1982 Lebanese civil war, Fallaci captures the Middle East’s complex social and political dynamics. “The trilogy,” comprising La rabbia e l’orgoglio (2001), La forza della ragione (2004), and Oriana Fallaci intervista sé stessa - L’Apocalisse (2004), was published in quick succession towards the end of her life. La rabbia e l’orgoglio was released following the September 11, 2001, attacks on the World Trade Centre in New York. In it, Fallaci appeals to Western powers to cease trading with the Middle East and take a resolute stand against terrorism to safeguard Western civilisation’s cultural identity (Khomeini - Intervista - Oriana Fallaci).


Figure 14: Cover of 'Lettera a un bambino mai nato' (n.d.)

Alda Merini (1931-2009) was a prominent Italian poet, aphorist, and writer renowned for her intense, passionate, and mystic writing style. Merini’s works exhibit an evident influence of Rainer Maria Rilke, and she is considered one of the most remarkable poets of the 20th century. Her poems frequently deal with deeply personal themes, including her experiences in a mental health institution. These dramatic pieces often explore Merini’s inner turmoil and emotional struggles, conveying raw emotion and profound insight into the human condition (Wayback Machine-Alda Merini).


Laltra verità. Diario di una diversa (1986) is a masterpiece in her opus. The work is composed in a diary, letters, and occasional verses and recounts the author’s experience of being interned in a mental hospital. While predominantly written in prose, the work evinces a profound lyrical dimension that runs through it (Corti, 1951–1997).


The poetic collection La Terra Santa (1984) is a highly emotional and introspective work based on her experience at the psychiatric ward. The collection features forty poems, and the dominant theme is the asylum, which Merini metaphorically likens to the Holy Land of biblical sources. Through this metaphor, the author creatively explores her period of internment, drawing parallels between her own struggles and the historical-religious events described in the Old Testament relating to the Jewish people’s exodus to the Holy Land (Corti, 1951–1997).


Figure 15: Alda Merini (Grittini, n.d.)

Published under the pseudonym Elena Ferrante, Anita Raja (1943) is a popular Italian writer recognised by Time magazine in 2016 as one of the 100 most influential people in the world. The lack of publicly available biographical information regarding Ferrante is attributable to her strict insistence on maintaining anonymity. In interviews, Ferrante has revealed that she was born in Naples, although further details about her life remain undisclosed. Nevertheless, her impressive grasp of classical literature has led some literary scholars to speculate that she may have an academic background (Wood, 2013).


Lamica geniale is a tetralogy consisting of four novels, namely Lamica geniale (2011), Storia del nuovo cognome (2012), Storia di chi fugge e di chi resta (2013) and Storia della bambina perduta (2014). This series is classified as a bildungsroman, a novel that focuses on the protagonist’s growth and development, often from childhood to adulthood. Ferrante considers the series a single novel published in instalments rather than four separate novels. The series’ central theme is portraying women in different roles and situations, such as the relationships between women and men, the evolution of the female condition over time, and the complexities of female friendships, including competition and jealousy. In addition, the series deals with other themes, such as the role of literature and intellectuals during periods of social and political unrest, the advent of computerisation, the factory protests of the 1970s, class conflict, and the lasting impact of the past on the present. Ferrante’s works are also known for depicting Naples’ social and cultural context and the characters’ origins (Fischer, 2014).


Figure 16: ‘L’amica geniale’ tetralogy (2011-2014)

To sum up this survey on Italian literature today, there is a vast and varied field encompassing a range of genres, from novels and essays to journalism and theatre, with little space for intimist poetry. Moreover, the Italian language itself has evolved to accommodate different dialects, and this diversity is reflected in the literary works produced. While this essay has offered a glimpse into some of the notable Italian authors and works, many more are active on the literary scene, often crossing over into other media such as TV and cinema.


Throughout its history, Italian literature has adapted to changing times and tastes, with new modes and genres emerging alongside traditional ones. The novel has become particularly famous in recent years, with many works achieving bestseller status with worldwide acceptance and acclaim. Whether classic or contemporary, Italian literature continues to captivate readers with its richness and diversity, and its impact on the world of letters is sure to endure for many years to come.


In conclusion, this series aims to introduce the rich and varied world of Italian literature and highlight its authors’ enduring influence on the literary world. As readers continue to engage with the works of Italian authors, the legacy of this literary tradition will endure for generations to come.


Bibliographical References

Antonucci, G. (1981). Eduardo De Filippo: introduzione e guida allo studio dell'opera eduardiana - storia e antologia della critica. Le Monnier.


Bisicchia, A. (2003). Invito alla lettura di Dario Fo. Mursia.


Bovenzi, M. (2020). Paolo Giordano: “La letteratura è lo strumento perfetto per indagare l’anima.” Scuola Di Scrittura Omero. https://www.omero.it/2008/03/31/paolo-giordano-la-letteratura-e-lo-strumento-perfetto-per-indagare-lanima/


Cavalli, M. (2008). Aldo Busi. Cadmo.


Corti, M. (1951-97). Introduzione a Alda Merini, Fiore di poesia. Einaudi.


De Filippo, E. (n.d.). Eduardo De Filippo. Fondazione Eduardo De Filippo. Retrieved May 4, 2023, from https://www.fondazionedefilippo.it/eduardo-de-filippo/


Fischer, M. (2014). Elena Ferrante and the Force of Female Friendships. The New Yorker. https://www.newyorker.com/books/page-turner/elena-ferrante-liking-like


Genesini, P. (2022). Letteratura italiana 123. Lectures notes retrieved from: http://www.letteratura-italiana.com/pdf/letteratura%20italiana/01%20GENESINI%20Letteratura%20123.pdf


Gialloreto, A (2015). Di bestia in bestia, di libro in libro. Il maniero-biblioteca di Michele Mari, in Biblioteche reali, biblioteche immaginarie, in care of Dolfi, A. Firenze University Press, pp. 217-241


Il Post (2015) (n.d.). La storia di Oriana Fallaci, quella vera. https://www.ilpost.it/2015/02/17/oriana-fallaci-storia/


Khomeini - Intervista - Oriana Fallaci. (n.d.). https://web.archive.org/web/20200305074048/http://www.oriana-fallaci.com/khomeini/intervista.html


Mazza Galanti, C. (2011). Michele Mari. Cadmo.


Montgomery, I. (2018). Stabat Mater by Tiziano Scarpa – review. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/books/2011/sep/27/stabat-mater-tiziano-scarpa-review


Nerenber, E. (2012). Murder Made in Italy: Homicide, Media, and Contemporary Italian Culture. Bloomington, Indiana University Press. pp. 203–241.


Giordano, P. (n.d.). In Enciclopedia Treccani. Retrieved April 30, 2023, from https://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/paolo-giordano.


Pischedda, B. (1994). Come leggere Il nome della rosa di Umberto Eco. Mursia.


Tiziano Scarpa. (2022). In Enciclopedia Treccani. Retrieved April 30, 2023, from https://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/tiziano-scarpa/


Umberto Eco. (n.d.). In Enciclopedia Treccani. Retrieved April 30, 2023, from https://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/umberto-eco/


Valerio Massimo Manfredi (n.d.). In Enciclopedia Treccani. Retrieved April 30, 2023, from https://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/valerio-massimo-manfredi/


Valerio Massimo Manfredi. (n.d.-a). Lo Scudo di Talos. Retrieved April 30, 2023 from https://www.valeriomassimomanfredi.it/en/novels/lo-scudo-di-talos-en/


Valerio Massimo Manfredi. (n.d.-b). L’ultima legione. Retrieved April 30, 2023 from https://www.valeriomassimomanfredi.it/en/novels/lultima-legione-en/


Valerio Massimo Manfredi. (n.d.-c). L’armata perduta. Retrieved April 30, 2023 from https://www.valeriomassimomanfredi.it/en/novels/larmata-perduta-en/


Valerio Massimo Manfredi. (n.d.-d). Alexandros. Il figlio del sogno (vol. 1). Retrieved April 30, 2023 from https://www.valeriomassimomanfredi.it/en/novels/alexandros-i-il-figlio-del-sogno-en/


Valerio Massimo Manfredi. (n.d.-e). Alexandros. Le sabbie di Amon (vol. 2). Retrieved April 30, 2023 from https://www.valeriomassimomanfredi.it/en/novels/alexandros-ii-le-sabbie-di-amon-en/


Valerio Massimo Manfredi. (n.d.-f). Alexandros. Il confine del mondo (vol. 3). Retrieved April 30, 2023 from https://www.valeriomassimomanfredi.it/en/novels/alexandros-iii-il-confine-del-mondo-en/


Vassalli, S. (1996). Giovani scrittori che orrore. Corriere della Sera.


Wayback Machine-Alda Merini. (n.d.). https://web.archive.org/web/20040610082650/http://www.aldamerini.com/aldamerini.html


Wood, J. (2013). The Fiction of Elena Ferrante. The New Yorker. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2013/01/21/women-on-the-verge

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