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History of Italian Literature 101: The Renaissance - The Success of the Commedia dell’Arte

Foreword


The grotesque domain unveils a complex connection with human belief systems, folklore and “subcultures”, evoking a sense of macabre fascination. Within this series, we shall delve into the deep interplay between grotesque aesthetics and comic discourse, always keeping an eye out for comedy and satire. The captivating evolution of grotesque crosses multiple historical eras, each one bearing distinct comical genres that reflect the societies from which they emerged. By scrutinizing the historical contexts, we aim to discern the pivotal role they play in shaping humorous expressions, with a particular emphasis on the literary grotesque and its association with comedy in folklore. This series belongs to a course of Italian literature. Our focus shall concentrate on Italian comic literature, clarifying its intricate connections to its Latin and Greek origins.


Additionally, we venture into the realm of fables, timeless narratives that transcend cultural boundaries, leaving an indelible mark on our perception of humor. Both folktales and fables contribute to our collective understanding of how hilarity should be portrayed, providing enduring narratives that continue to resonate until now. Our exploration reveals that the quest for laughter remains a universal pursuit, intimately woven into the fabric of humanity and its literary creations.


This 101 series will be composed of seven articles, as follows:



The Renaissance - The Success of the Commedia dell’Arte


In the vibrant tapestry of the Renaissance, a linguistic revolution unfolded as vernacular languages ascended, dethroning the hegemony of Latin and breathing new life into the cultural fabric of Europe (Migliorini, 2019). Concurrently, on the theatrical stage, a captivating phenomenon emerged, etching its mark in history—the Commedia dell'Arte. This theatrical genre, a tour de force that spanned from the late Middle Ages to the seventeenth century, transcended the boundaries of time, leaving an indelible legacy on European drama. The very essence of the Commedia dell'Arte lies in its historical origins, intricately woven during an era of intellectual and artistic ferment. As the curtains rose on the stage of the Renaissance, the Commedia dell'Arte took center stage, captivating audiences with its dynamic interplay of comedy and societal reflection (Giovanardi, 2015). 


One of the most important features of the Commedia dell’Arte is its strong relationship with the grotesque. As the previous articles stated, the grotesque is used mainly as a tool to convey social criticism towards established norms. However it is during this period that the meaning of grotesque arose as a specific genre, synonym of the “farsa” (eng. “farce”), and a particular kind of decorative painting in the villas of courts all over Europe. A farce is a genre of theatrical work characterized by its structure and plot revolving around extravagant situations and characters, while generally maintaining a certain level of realism in its irrational aspects. Themes and characters in farces can be imaginative, yet they must remain credible and plausible. Although farce is predominantly comedic, works belonging to this genre have been crafted across various theatrical styles, showcasing the versatility of its application. The comedic essence of farce often stems from exaggerated circumstances, mistaken identities, and the humorous exploration of the absurdities inherent in the situations presented (Patota, 2019). Despite the primary focus on humor, farces can be found within the spectrum of theatrical genres, illustrating the adaptability of this form of entertainment across diverse artistic expressions.



Figure 1: The Actors of the Commedia dell’Arte (Lancret, 18th Cen.).


For what concerns the grotesque as a decorative style, it should be noted that the grotesque represents a unique style of wall painting embellishment, tracing its origins back to Roman art during the Augustan era. Its resurgence and widespread popularity began in the late 15th century (Rinaldi, 2011). Grotesque ornamentation is marked by the portrayal of hybrid and monstrous entities, chimeras depicted as slender and whimsical figures, blending seamlessly into geometric and naturalistic designs. These patterns exhibit symmetrical structures against a predominantly white or monochromatic backdrop.

The vibrant colors of the figures give birth to frames, geometric illusions, and interwoven patterns, maintaining a sense of delicacy and lightness. The subjects are delicately depicted, almost in a calligraphic manner against the background. The predominantly imaginative and playful illustrations serve not only ornamental purposes but occasionally adopt a didactic and encyclopedic role, presenting inventories of arts and sciences or depictions with an eponymous character.


The “Grotesque Comedy”

Delving into the roots of this theatrical marvel, through the late Middle Ages, the Commedia dell’Arte (eng. “The Comedy of Art”) found its nascent form. From humble beginnings, it evolved into a sophisticated and enduring art form, navigating the tides of change that characterized this tumultuous epoch. Lasting until the seventeenth century, the Commedia dell'Arte became an outstanding companion in the unfolding drama of European cultural evolution, leaving an indelible mark on theatrical history (Migliorini, 2019). At its core, this theatrical tradition became a vehicle for both entertainment and social commentary—a mirror reflecting the pulse of society, as all theatre, with some exceptions such as the English Restoration Comedy or the “New Comedy” of Ancient Greece. Nonetheless even these two exceptions had a sense, paralleling the weak role that people from lower and middle classes had during that era.



Figure 2: Decoration of Cardinal Bibbiena's Loggetta (Da Udine, 1516-1517).


A distinctive feature of the Commedia dell'Arte lies in the creation of fixed masks and characters, the most iconic among them being Harlequin and Pulcinella. These characters, draped in the cloak of tradition, became timeless archetypes, weaving their way through the narratives of countless plays. The introduction of these masks was more than mere theatrical convention; it was a stroke of genius that ensured the endurance and recognizability of the Commedia dell'Arte across generations. Harlequin, the mischievous trickster, and Pulcinella, the hunchbacked buffoon, danced across the stage, transcending the barriers of language and culture, and cementing their status as cultural icons (Smith, 1984).


As we stand on the precipice of this rich historical panorama, the forthcoming exploration promises a fascinating journey. From the linguistic revolution of the Renaissance to the enduring influence of the Commedia dell'Arte, our odyssey through time unfolds. In the subsequent chapters of this article, we traverse the intricacies of the Renaissance court, where comedy became a sophisticated dance between the powerful and the satirical, with Machiavelli's works providing a literary backdrop. Simultaneously, we navigate the grotesque—a thematic undercurrent that surged through the Renaissance, manifesting in the physical deformities and exaggerated traits of the Commedia dell'Arte characters.

In essence, this article serves as a key to unlock the door to a former era, where language flourished, theater thrived, and societal nuances were laid bare on the stage (Giovanardi, 2015).


The Language and the Court

Because of its political fragmentation, Italy had a difficult journey when it comes to the history of  language. This is why this linguistic revolution was not merely a linguistic shift but a cultural renaissance, as regional languages ascended to prominence, becoming vessels for the expression of diverse thoughts, ideas, and emotions. The pulse of society quickened with the heartbeat of these vernacular tongues, breathing life into the very essence of culture. This linguistic metamorphosis became a testament to the democratization of knowledge and the flourishing of individual expression, forging a new path forward, in which the grotesque could unquestionably flourish (Patota, 2019).



Figure 3: A theatrical representation of Arlequin Jason (1685).


As the echoes of Latin receded, an undeniable decline in the once-omnipotent Latin culture reverberated through the corridors of intellectual discourse. Renaissance bore witness to a seismic shift away from the rigidity of Latin traditions, making room for the blossoming of regionalism. Regionalism, when related to languages, refers to the choice of a word, expression, or pronunciation that is preferred by speakers within a specific geographical location (Migliorini, 2019).

This emphasis on local languages fostered a sense of identity and pride, giving voice to the distinct nuances and flavors of various cultures across Europe. It was a reclamation of cultural sovereignty, a celebration of diversity that laid the groundwork for a more inclusive and dynamic cultural landscape.


Within this cultural whirlpool, this new form of artistic expression emerged—an avant-garde theater that mirrored the complexities of the Renaissance spirit. Refined comedy, adorned with the attire of political undertones, took center stage. It became more than a source of entertainment; it metamorphosed into a sophisticated commentary on the political landscape of the time. The theatrical realm, once confined to the realms of courtly performances, now spilled onto the streets and public squares, resonating with the collective consciousness of the people. The power of laughter became a tool for societal reflection, and the Commedia dell'Arte, with its vibrant characters and dynamic performances, stood as a testament to the marriage of entertainment and political critique.


The Renaissance court, with its opulence and intellectual fervor, became an intricate stage where comedy played a subtle role in navigating the delicate dance between the powerful and the satirical (Stauble, 2011). The Commedia dell'Arte, as a form of court entertainment, became a mirror reflecting the dynamics of power. Comedy served as both a diversion for the powerful and a delicate criticism. It was within the hallowed halls of the court that the relationship between comedy and power became a fine ballet, with each pirouette containing layers of social commentary.

This courtly entertainment aspect of the Commedia dell'Arte was not merely a diversion but a calculated maneuver, a theatrical spectacle designed to serve the powerful. The laughter echoing through the courtly chambers masked the satirical edge of the performances, allowing the elite to revel in amusement while remaining blissfully unaware of the underlying critique. The Commedia dell'Arte, with its clever wordplay and masked characters, became a theatrical masquerade, concealing the sharp wit that lay beneath the surface.


Figure 4: Les Farceurs français et italiens (Verrio, 1670).


In the shadows of courtly intrigue, the works of Niccolò Machiavelli (1469-1512) loom large as literary counterparts to the satirical undercurrents of the Commedia dell'Arte. The examination of satirical implications within this theatrical tradition draws parallels with Machiavelli's political treatises. Both Machiavelli's writings and the Commedia dell'Arte functioned as mirrors reflecting the complex interplay of power, morality, and human nature. The comedies, much like Machiavelli's political analysis, exposed the foibles of the powerful, laying bare the intricate dance between ambition and morality.


Niccolò Machiavelli 

Niccolò Machiavelli, a luminary of the Italian Renaissance, is renowned for his influential political treatises, notably The Prince and Discourses on Livy, which delve into the intricate dynamics of power and statecraft. However, less explored but equally intriguing are his theatrical works, offering a fascinating glimpse into the multifaceted intellect of this political philosopher. Born in 1469 in Florence, Machiavelli's life unfolded against a backdrop of political turbulence, and his experiences as a diplomat and public servant deeply informed his literary endeavors (Russo, 1994).


Machiavelli's foray into the world of theater is epitomized by his comedic play, The Mandrake (La Mandragola), a masterpiece that exemplifies his versatility beyond the realm of political discourse. Set in Florence, this comedic gem, penned in 1518, satirizes the moral decadence of the time. The Mandrake weaves a tale of deception, lust, and political maneuvering, centering around the protagonist, Callimaco, who employs cunning stratagems to attain his desires. This theatrical venture showcases Machiavelli's keen understanding of human nature, as well as his ability to dissect societal norms with sharp wit.



Figure 5: Portait of Niccolò Machiavelli (Di Tito, 1550-1560).

Machiavelli's theatrical works, while perhaps overshadowed by his political treatises, bear witness to his astute observation of the human condition. His plays, often characterized by their biting satire and incisive commentary, reveal a profound awareness of the complexities inherent in both political and personal relationships. Through the lens of theater, Machiavelli presents a mirror reflecting the machinations of society, employing humor as a means to critique the moral ambiguities and political intrigues of his time.

While The Mandrake remains his most celebrated theatrical work, Machiavelli's repertoire also includes The Clizia and The Andria, each contributing to the rich tapestry of Renaissance drama. These plays, though less frequently examined, offer valuable insights into Machiavelli's exploration of human nature, morality, and the shifting dynamics of power, themes that echo the concerns present in his political treatises (Raimondi, 2019).


In exploring Machiavelli's theatrical works, one encounters not only a skilled playwright but a keen observer of human comedy. The plays, though written centuries ago, continue to captivate audiences, illustrating the enduring relevance of Machiavelli's insights into the complexities of political and social life. Beyond the strategic machinations of The Prince, Machiavelli's theatrical works showcase a literary craftsman who harnessed the power of satire and wit to both entertain and provoke thought—a testament to the enduring legacy of this Renaissance genius.


The Grotesque in the Renaissance 

The fusion of vernacular languages, refined comedy, and courtly intrigue becomes a mesmerizing tapestry. In this intricate dance between language, laughter and power, the Renaissance stands as a testament to the transformative power of culture, where the stage becomes a mirror reflecting the evolving soul of society.



Figure 6: Mandragora Officinarum in Tacuinum Sanitatis in Medicina (1390).


In the kaleidoscope of the Renaissance, the concept of the grotesque emerged as a captivating aesthetic that transcended traditional boundaries, inviting viewers to confront the unconventional and the extraordinary. At its core, the grotesque defied norms and embraced the unconventional, providing a visual language for the chaotic and absurd aspects of human existence. This aesthetic departure found its roots in the revival of ancient myths and inscriptions, becoming a bridge that connected the classical past with the burgeoning humanism of the Renaissance. The grotesque, in its various manifestations, became a vehicle for artists to navigate the complexities of the human condition and to challenge the prevailing ideals of beauty and order.


The revival of ancient myths and inscriptions becomes a crucial juncture in understanding its genesis (Katritzky, 2008). Ancient motifs, once buried beneath the sands of time, resurfaced with a renewed vigor, infusing the Renaissance with a sense of classical nostalgia. This revival was not merely an aesthetic choice but a deliberate effort to reconnect with the wisdom of antiquity, drawing inspiration from the untamed and fantastical elements present in ancient art and literature. Thus, the grotesque became a vector for the expression of the sublime and the monstrous, a visual language that transcended the limitations of conventional representation.

The transition from the revival of ancient myths to the representation of the grotesque in Commedia dell'Arte characters unveils a fascinating intersection of theatrical performance and artistic exploration. Stock characters like Pantalone, Harlequin, and Pulcinella, iconic figures in the Commedia dell'Arte tradition, emerged as living embodiments of the grotesque. The hunchbacked Pulcinella, with his exaggerated physical deformities, the mischievous Harlequin with his whimsical antics, and the scheming Pantalone with his grotesque mannerisms collectively embodied the chaotic and absurd aspects of human nature. Their physical distortions and outrageous behaviors became a theatrical mirror reflecting the distortions and absurdities of the social and political landscape (Smith, 2011).


The Commedia dell’Arte

Commedia dell'Arte, a vibrant and improvisational form of Italian theater that emerged in the 16th century, represents a unique fusion of scripted scenarios and spontaneous performance. This theatrical tradition relied heavily on stock characters, intricate masks, and a dynamic interplay between the actors and the audience. While the roots of Commedia dell'Arte can be traced back to ancient Roman and medieval Italian traditions, it reached its zenith during the Renaissance, captivating audiences across Europe (Stauble, 2011).


Figure 7: Harlequin Mask (Sand, 1860).

At the heart of Commedia dell'Arte are its iconic stock characters, each possessing distinctive traits and characteristics. Harlequin, the mischievous and acrobatic servant; Pantalone, the greedy and old Venetian merchant; and Columbina, the clever and resourceful maidservant, are just a few examples of these archetypal figures. The use of masks was integral to the tradition, allowing actors to portray multiple characters and facilitating the spontaneity inherent in Commedia performances (Jordan, 2010).

Several notable authors contributed to the development and popularization of Commedia dell'Arte. One such figure is Carlo Goldoni, an 18th-century Venetian playwright, who sought to reform and regulate Commedia dell'Arte by introducing written scripts and diminishing the reliance on improvisation. Goldoni's works, including The Servant of Two Masters, exemplify his efforts to codify the tradition while retaining its essence. 

Linguistically, Commedia dell'Arte was characterized by a blend of languages and dialects. The actors often used a combination of standardized Italian, local dialects, and even elements of other European languages. This linguistic flexibility allowed Commedia dell'Arte to transcend linguistic barriers and appeal to diverse audiences, contributing to its widespread popularity.


In the Commedia dell'Arte plays, these grotesque characters became vehicles for both comedic effect and social criticism. The exaggerated traits and physical deformities of Pantalone, Harlequin, and Pulcinella transcended the boundaries of mere entertainment; they became symbolic representations of societal flaws and absurdities. The grotesque, as embodied by these characters, functioned as a mechanism through which the audience could laugh at the absurdities of their own world while simultaneously reflecting on the underlying societal issues. This dual role of the grotesque in the Commedia dell'Arte speaks to its versatility as both a source of amusement and a powerful tool for social criticism.


The Stock Characters

The grotesque becomes more than a mere aesthetic choice; it becomes a lens through which the Renaissance artists and playwrights could confront the complexities of human existence and challenge the prevailing norms. This might look similar to the role of grotesque in Ancient Greece. In the theatrical world of the Commedia dell'Arte, the grotesque takes center stage, inviting audiences to laugh, reflect, and ultimately, to confront the untamed aspects of their own humanity. Venturing deeper into the realm of the Commedia dell'Arte, the grotesque traits embedded within its stock characters unfold as a captivating tapestry that weaves together theatrical brilliance, societal critique, and a profound exploration of human nature. As we dissect the anatomy of these iconic characters, such as Pantalone, Harlequin and Pulcinella, their embodiment of grotesque traits becomes a spectacle that transcends mere performance, becoming a mirror reflecting the societal idiosyncrasies of the Renaissance (Jordan, 2010).



Figure 8: Pulcinella (Faldi, 1892).


The analysis of how these stock characters embody grotesque traits reveals a deliberate departure from conventional norms, a conscious choice by playwrights and performers to unleash the untamed and absurd aspects of the human psyche. Pantalone, the elderly merchant consumed by avarice, with his hunched back and exaggerated greed, personifies the grotesque through physical deformities and moral shortcomings. Harlequin, the mischievous trickster, captivates audiences not only with his whimsical antics but also with his grotesque exaggerations, transcending the boundaries of reality. Meanwhile, Pulcinella, the hunchbacked buffoon, becomes a living manifestation of the grotesque, utilizing physical deformities as a means to disrupt the conventional norms of beauty and order.


The examination of physical deformities, exaggerated gestures, and outrageous behavior within these characters reveals a deliberate theatrical strategy aimed at both entertaining and unsettling the audience. The grotesque traits are not mere embellishments but transformative tools, enabling these characters to transcend the ordinary and delve into the extraordinary. The hunched back of Pulcinella, the capricious leaps of Harlequin, and the calculated gestures of Pantalone become choreographed expressions of the grotesque, blurring the lines between reality and theatrical illusion. It is within this grotesque realm that the Commedia dell'Arte characters come alive, challenging societal expectations and inviting the audience to confront the unconventional with laughter and contemplation (Smith, 2011).


Pantalone's insatiable greed becomes a satirical commentary on the avarice prevalent within the upper echelons of Renaissance society. Harlequin's capriciousness and disregard for authority speak to the societal unrest simmering beneath the surface, challenging established norms. Pulcinella's hunchbacked figure, embodying physical deformity, becomes a poignant commentary on the societal tendency to marginalize those who deviate from the perceived norms of beauty and order (Katritzky, 2008).

The laughter inspired by these characters becomes a vessel for societal introspection, a subtle rebellion against the rigidity of norms, and an invitation to question the status quo. The grotesque, as embodied by Pantalone, Harlequin and Pulcinella, becomes a subversive language, allowing playwrights and performers to navigate the complexities of societal expectations with both humor and profundity.


Figure 9: Franca Trippa and Fritellino (16th-17th Cen.).

The profound influence of the Commedia dell'Arte on literary works becomes a captivating chapter that unfolds across the stages of time. The exploration of typical Commedia dell'Arte plays unveils a rich repertoire of stories that not only entertained audiences but also served as a fertile ground for literary inspiration. In the vibrant marketplace of theatrical creativity, the Commedia dell'Arte plays flourished with their iconic characters, dynamic plots and the infusion of the grotesque—a theatrical language that left an indelible mark on the literary landscape.


Delving into the heart of Commedia dell'Arte plays, one encounters a vibrant array of narratives that echo the societal nuances of the Renaissance. The misadventures of Harlequin, the cunning schemes of Pantalone and the whimsical escapades of Pulcinella became staples of the theatrical tradition, captivating audiences with their blend of humor, social commentary and the grotesque. These plays, often improvised yet meticulously choreographed, were not confined to the stage but spilled over into the literary realm, influencing the works of renowned playwrights and authors (Giovanardi, 2019).


The Literary Legacy

The examination of how the grotesque was employed for comedic effect and social criticism within these plays provides a deeper understanding of the Commedia dell'Arte's literary impact. The grotesque traits of characters like Pantalone, Harlequin and Pulcinella, with their physical deformities and exaggerated behaviors, were not merely theatrical embellishments but powerful tools for storytelling. The comedic effect stemmed from the juxtaposition of these larger-than-life characters against the backdrop of societal norms, inviting laughter while simultaneously challenging established conventions. This fusion of humor and societal critique became a hallmark of the Commedia dell'Arte, laying the groundwork for a literary tradition that sought to explore the complexities of human nature through a lens of satire and absurdity.


Figure 10: Sei personaggi in cerca d’autore (1965).


The influence of the Commedia dell'Arte on subsequent literary works extends far beyond its immediate theatrical context. Luigi Pirandello, an influential Italian playwright and novelist of the 20th century, stands as a testament to the enduring impact of this theatrical tradition. Pirandello's groundbreaking works, such as Six Characters in Search of an Author, draw upon the improvisational spirit of the Commedia dell'Arte while introducing a modernist twist. The interplay between reality and illusion, a recurring theme in Pirandello's works, echoes the Commedia dell'Arte's penchant for blurring the lines between performance and reality (Migliorini, 2019).


The legacy of the Commedia dell'Arte can also be traced in the works of other prominent authors. Molière, the French playwright of the seventeenth century, embraced the comedic traditions of the Commedia dell'Arte in his theatrical productions, infusing them with a satirical edge that mirrored the social critiques embedded in the Italian tradition. The grotesque elements of the Commedia dell'Arte characters resonated with Molière's exploration of human folly, providing a fertile ground for his witty and insightful commentaries on society (Russo, 1994).

Furthermore, the lasting impact of the Commedia dell'Arte on literature is not confined to a specific time or place. Its influence reverberates in the works of modern playwrights, such as the absurdist dramas of Samuel Beckett and Eugène Ionesco. The absurdity and existential questioning in these works can be seen as a distant echo of the Commedia dell'Arte's subversion of societal norms and its exploration of the grotesque as a tool for challenging established paradigms.


The Satire 

The Renaissance, marked by an intellectual and cultural reawakening, witnessed the profound importance of satire as a dynamic and subversive force that permeated the fabric of society. As Europe underwent a revival of learning, arts, and sciences, satire emerged as a nuanced form of social commentary, offering a sharp and often humorous critique of prevailing norms. This period of rebirth and rediscovery nurtured an intellectual climate where writers and artists sought to explore the complexities of human behavior, political structures and societal mores.

Satire, as a genre, provided a means for cultural arbiters to wield wit, humor and irony as tools for exposing the hypocrisy, corruption and moral contradictions inherent in the fabric of Renaissance society. Renowned figures such as Erasmus, in works like The Praise of Folly, used satire to question the conventions of the time, urging readers to reconsider their values and assumptions. François Rabelais, in his Gargantua and Pantagruel, employed satire to lampoon the excesses of the clergy and the ruling class, weaving a tapestry of irreverence and critique (Bakhtin, 2001).


Figure 11: Title page of Gargantua (Rabelais, 1537).


One intriguing facet of Renaissance satire is its connection to the concept of the grotesque body, as elucidated by the Russian literary theorist Mikhail Bakhtin. Bakhtin's theory, particularly expounded in his work Rabelais and His World, posits that the body, especially in its more exaggerated and corporeal forms, serves as a site of resistance and subversion against established norms. The grotesque body, characterized by its excesses, deformities, and bodily functions, becomes a metaphorical space where societal hierarchies can be both challenged and inverted.


In the context of Renaissance satire, the grotesque body serves as a powerful vehicle for dismantling societal pretensions. Satirical works often depicted characters with exaggerated bodily features, portraying them as both comedic and subversive figures. The carnivalesque spirit, central to Bakhtin's theory, is manifest in the festive and liberating nature of satire, where societal norms are temporarily suspended, and the grotesque body takes center stage in a carnivalesque inversion of authority.


The importance of satire during the Renaissance, therefore, extends beyond mere entertainment; it becomes a profound instrument for intellectual engagement and societal reflection. Satire, through its witty critique and the subversion of traditional norms, contributed to the intellectual ferment of the time. By challenging the status quo and encouraging critical thinking, satire played a crucial role in shaping the Renaissance as a period of questioning, reevaluation and transformation.


Figure 12: The Court of Mantua (Mantegna, 1471-1474).

The significance of satire during the Renaissance lies in its capacity to transcend conventional boundaries and serve as a dynamic force for cultural critique. From Erasmus to Rabelais, satirical works not only entertained audiences but invited them to engage in a thoughtful reconsideration of their beliefs and societal structures. The intertwining of satire with the grotesque body, as envisioned by Bakhtin, added a layer of subversion and carnivalesque revelry, creating a space for the temporary overturning of established norms. As a result, satire became an enduring and influential genre that not only reflected the spirit of the Renaissance but actively contributed to its intellectual and cultural legacy.


Comedy, courtly entertainment and the grotesque emerged as integral elements within this cultural symphony, each playing a unique role in reflecting and shaping societal changes. The courtly entertainment aspect of the Commedia dell'Arte not only entertained the powerful but also served as a subtle vehicle for social commentary. In the courts of Renaissance Europe, where political intrigue and opulence reigned, the Commedia dell'Arte became a mirror reflecting the dance between those in power and the satirical undercurrents challenging the status quo. The role of comedy, both in the linguistic evolution and the theatrical tradition, became a potent tool for societal introspection. Through laughter, the Commedia dell'Arte brought to light the absurdities of human nature, fostering an environment where societal norms were questioned and redefined (Smith, 2011).


Drawing the curtains on this exploration of vernacular languages and the Commedia dell'Arte, one cannot help but marvel at the enduring legacy they have bestowed upon European theatrical history. The Renaissance, with its linguistic revival and theatrical innovations, set the stage for a cultural renaissance that transcended borders and generations. The echoes of vernacular languages and the laughter evoked by the Commedia dell'Arte continue to reverberate through the corridors of time, reminding us of the power of language, humor, and the theatrical arts in shaping the narrative of human history.


Bibliographical References

Bachtin, M. (2001) [orginal work published in 1965]. L’Opera di Rabelais e la Cultura Popolare.  Einaudi.


Giovanardi, C. And Trifone, P. (2015). La lingua del teatro, Il Mulino


Jordan, P. (2010). In Search of Pantalone and the Origins of the Commedia dell’Arte. Revue Internationale de Philosophie64(252 (2)), 207–232. 


Katritzky, M. A. (2008). The Commedia dell’Arte: New Perspectives and New Documents. Early Theatre11(2), 141–158


Machiavelli, N. (2013) [original work published in 1518). Mandragola-Clizia. Feltrinelli

 

Migliorini, B. (2019). Storia della lingua Italiana, Bompiani


Patota, G. (2019). La grande bellezza dell'italiano. Il Rinascimento, Laterza


Rabelais, F. (Various). Gargantua and Pantagruel.


Raimondi, E. (1969). Il teatro del Machiavelli. Studi Storici10(4), 749–798 Rinaldi, S. (2011). Storia tecnica dell’Arte. Materiali e Tecniche della Pittura e della Scultura (sec. V-XIX). Carocci.


Russo, J. L. (1994). Molière, Machiavelli, and the Commedia dell'Arte. Comparative Drama, 28(4), 518-541.


Smith, B. R. (1984). Commedia dell'Arte: A Handbook for Troupes. Routledge.


Stäuble, A. (2011). Tipologia dei prologhi nelle commedie del Cinquecento. Lettere Italiane, 63(1), 3–34.

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