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Can We Create a World Without Poverty?

Poverty is the state when people lack the means to satisfy their basic needs (“Poverty | Definition, Causes, Types, & Facts”).

In the 21st century, this issue is the top priority, ergo "No poverty" is the number one sustainable development goal out of seventeen. Various governmental or non-governmental organizations unite around it. Their vision is creating the world without it. But is it possible? To find answers to those questions, we will review Functionalism, Conflict Theory, and Symbolic interactionalism - three major sociological paradigms and their micro and macro-level analysis of the issue, and explain: What is poverty? How would the world function without it? And, can we create the world without it?

UN. (2015). Sustainable Development goals [Graph]. 17 sustainable development goals by the Un to transform our world
Figure 1: UN. (2015). Sustainable Development goals [Graph].

Functionalism on poverty

First of all, functionalism states that poverty has a function that helps society to operate better. Stratification must exist as it is an integral part of the competitive and healthy function of society. The existence of stratification depends on the occupation. Individuals will strive towards jobs that best suit them and can offer the most benefit and rewards (Dmello, Sociology of Poverty). However, getting such a position requires years of studying and hard work that will finally result in the development of the individual. Ergo, the will to overcome poverty and stratification, individuals gain motivation, hence the society will develop. However, it will be fair to say that the Functionalist theory is unjust and subjective as it leaves the suffering and the everyday struggle of millions of people unexplained. It does not discuss the possible solutions to the issue, in fact, it states that there is no end to this inevitable issue.

Sangorori. Stratification illustration
Figure 2: Stratification

Conflict theory

On the contrary, conflict theory discusses that poverty is an integral part of a capitalist society. It is a direct consequence of the inequality inherent in the class system. Unlike functionalism’s viewpoint of poverty, it claims that social stratification does not benefit society as a whole but instead only a small section - the bourgeoise. The lack of opportunity that an individual is born in causes class stratification. (Dmello, Sociology of Poverty). To break the cycle of poverty, one needs to get proper education and life, which is only affordable to people with a certain amount of income and livings. Stated above leads to an assumption that mobility between classes and moving from one position to another is possible but barely manageable.