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Beyond Self: Exploring Prosocial Behavior

In a world that is often characterized by self-interest and division, a glimmer of compassion emerges, reminding us of our shared humanity. As reported by Schindler and Friese (2022) who are researchers in the field of education, prosocial behavior, the act of selflessly helping others and promoting their well-being, holds great significance in fostering a harmonious society. It embodies empathy, kindness, and cooperation that transcend boundaries and nurture human connections (Schindler & Friese, 2022). This essay explores the profound impact of prosocial behavior on individuals and communities, shedding light on its underlying motivations and the benefits it brings. By examining psychological theories, different forms of prosocial acts, and their transformative power, we embark on a journey to uncover the potential of prosocial behavior in creating a more compassionate and united world.

Figure 1: Young Volunteers Cleaning the Beach (Tamm, 2021).
The Importance of Prosocial Behavior: Promoting Social Connections and Positive Development

Prosocial behavior, which encompasses actions that benefit others, plays a crucial role in the social lives of people, as highlighted by Bagwell and Bukowski (2018) in their book Friendship in Childhood and Adolescence: Features, Effects, and Processes. These behaviors not only foster affiliation and acceptance among peers but also contribute significantly to positive development and overall well-being (Bagwell & Bukowski, 2018). The diverse range of prosocial behaviors includes concrete aid, as well as more intricate forms of assistance, with motivations driving these behaviors varying across individuals and contexts. Hay (1994), known for her work in the field of peer relations, further categorizes prosocial behavior into different forms, such as helping, sharing, and comforting, each addressing the specific needs of others. Additionally, cooperation emerges as another notable form of prosocial behavior, which is to emphasize the importance of working together to achieve shared goals (Hay, 1994). Understanding the complexities and interconnectedness of these different types of prosocial behaviors provides valuable insights into their transformative power in shaping social dynamics and fostering a supportive and harmonious environment for individuals.

Figure 2: A food basket hung for those in need in Bologna, Italy, during the COVID-19 pandemic in April 2020 (Cassarino, 2020).

The Psychology of Prosocial Behavior: Unraveling Motivations for Compassionate Acts

Moreover, what does the theoretical background encompass? Wentzel (2014), author of the book Prosocial Development, states that understanding the psychological foundations of prosocial behavior provides valuable insights into the motivations that drive individuals to engage in selfless acts of kindness. There are two prominent theories: social exchange theory and empathy-altruism theory; which offer distinct perspectives on the underlying mechanisms behind prosocial behavior (Cook et al., 2013). Cook et al. (2013), authors of the Handbook of Social Psychology (2013), discuss how the social exchange theory posits that individuals engage in prosocial behavior based on a cost-benefit analysis. According to social exchange theory, people are motivated to help others when they perceive the rewards of helping to outweigh the costs (Cook et al., 2013). In addition, these rewards can include tangible outcomes such as gratitude or social approval, while costs may involve personal sacrifices or potential risks (Cook et al., 2013). In this way, social exchange theory suggests that individuals engage in prosocial acts to maximize their own well-being through the exchange of resources, favors, or emotional support (Cook et al., 2013). In contrast, empathy-altruism theory emphasizes the role of empathy and compassion in driving prosocial behavior (Persson and Kajonius, 2016). From the Department of Psychology at Lund University, Persson and Kajonius (2016) found that individuals are motivated to help others purely out of genuine concern for their well-being, without expecting anything in return. Empathy, the ability to understand and share the feelings of others, plays a central role in activating altruistic motives, which is when individuals feel empathetic towards someone in need, and experience a desire to alleviate their suffering or improve their situation, independent of any personal gains (Persson and Kajonius, 2016). Researchers from Arizona State University, Eisenberg and Spinrad (2014), proclaim that, while these theories provide valuable insights, the motivations behind prosocial behavior are influenced by a complex interplay of personal and situational factors; personal factors, such as personality traits, values, and moral beliefs, shape an individual's inclination towards prosocial behavior. For instance, individuals with high levels of empathy or a strong sense of moral responsibility are more likely to engage in selfless acts (Eisenberg and Spinrad, 2014). Besides, situational factors also play a crucial role in influencing prosocial behavior: the presence of others, social norms, and the perceived costs and benefits of helping in a specific situation can impact an individual's decision to engage in prosocial behavior (Eisenberg and Spinrad, 2014). By exploring the theoretical underpinnings of prosocial behavior and considering the interplay of personal and situational factors, we gain a deeper understanding of the complexities behind why and when individuals are more likely to engage in acts of kindness. Such insights are crucial for fostering a culture that encourages and supports prosocial behavior, ultimately contributing to a more compassionate and interconnected society.


The Benefits of Prosocial Behavior: Enhancing Well-being, Relationships, and Society

Finally, the benefits of prosocial behavior should also be mentioned. As reported by Klein (2017), who is an assistant professor of organisational behaviour, engaging in prosocial behavior offers numerous benefits, both at the individual and societal levels. On an individual level, participating in acts of kindness and selflessness has been linked to increased well-being and improved mental health (Klein, 2017) Klein's research (2017) showed that individuals who engage in prosocial behavior experience greater levels of happiness, satisfaction, and purpose in life. Also, helping others has been associated with reduced levels of stress, anxiety, and depression, promoting overall psychological well-being (Klein, 2017). Psychologists Lay and Hoppmann (2015) focused on another benefit: prosocial behavior also fosters enhanced social connections and relationships. For instance, by extending a helping hand or showing kindness, individuals strengthen their social bonds and build a support network (Lay and Hoppmann, 2015). At a societal level, the benefits of prosocial behavior extend even further; communities characterized by high levels of prosocial behavior experience greater harmony, reduced conflicts, and enhanced social cohesion (Lay and Hoppmann, 2015). Therefore, acts of kindness and cooperation create a sense of shared values and goals, facilitating collaboration and collective problem-solving (Lay and Hoppmann, 2015). This, in turn, leads to more effective and sustainable solutions to societal challenges. Wilson and Musick (1997), who are researchers from Duke University, examined the relationship between volunteering as a kind of prosocial behavior, and mortality rates. Researchers found that individuals who volunteered had a 44% lower likelihood of dying over a five-year period, even after controlling for various factors (Wilson and Musick, 1997). This effect was particularly strong among individuals aged 65 and older, with a 63% reduction in mortality risk (Wilson and Musick, 1997). The study suggests that engaging in regular volunteering activities can have a significant positive impact on physical health and overall well-being, leading to lower mortality rates (Wilson and Musick, 1997). By embracing and promoting prosocial behavior, individuals not only enhance their own well-being but also contribute to the creation of a more harmonious and interconnected society (Lay & Hoppmann, 2015). The evidence suggests that acts of kindness and selflessness have far-reaching positive effects, fostering well-being, social cohesion, and a sense of belonging for individuals and communities alike (Klein, 2017).

Figure 3: Volunteers Children (Garcia,2023).
Conclusion

In conclusion, prosocial behavior holds profound significance in shaping individuals, communities, and society as a whole (Schindler & Friese, 2022). The theoretical background reveals two prominent perspectives: social exchange theory, which highlights the role of cost-benefit analysis and personal gains, and empathy-altruism theory, which emphasizes genuine concern and empathy for others (Wentzel, 2014). Prosocial behavior promotes social connections, positive development, and overall well-being for individuals; it fosters enhanced relationships, reduces stress and anxiety, and contributes to greater happiness and life satisfaction (Bagwell & Bukowski, 2018). At a societal level, prosocial behavior enhances social cohesion, reduces conflicts, and facilitates collaboration and collective problem-solving (Eisenberg and Spinrad, 2014). The benefits extend to improved physical health and longevity, as evidenced by the association between volunteering and reduced mortality rates (Wilson and Musick, 1997). By embracing and promoting prosocial behavior, we not only enhance our own well-being but also contribute to creating a more compassionate and interconnected society (Klein, 2017). As we navigate a world that often emphasizes self-interest and division, the power of prosocial behavior offers hope for a more harmonious and compassionate future.

Bibliographical References

Bagwell, C. L., & Bukowski, W. M. (2018). Friendship in childhood and adolescence: Features, effects, and processes.


Carlo (Eds.), Prosocial development: A multidimensional approach (pp. 17–39). Oxford University Press.


Cook, K. S., Cheshire, C., Rice, E. R., & Nakagawa, S. (2013). Social exchange theory. Handbook of social psychology, 61-88.


Eisenberg, N., & Spinrad, T. L. (2014). Multidimensionality of prosocial behavior: Rethinking the conceptualization and development of prosocial behavior. In L. M. Padilla-Walker & G.


Hay, D. F. (1994). Prosocial development. Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines, 35(1), 29–71.


Klein, N. (2017). Prosocial behavior increases perceptions of meaning in life. The Journal of positive psychology, 12(4), 354-361.


Lay, J., & Hoppmann, C. (2015). Altruism and prosocial behavior. Springer.


Persson, B. N., & Kajonius, P. J. (2016). Empathy and universal values explicated by the empathy-altruism hypothesis. The Journal of social psychology, 156(6), 610-619.


Schindler, S., & Friese, M. (2022). The relation of mindfulness and prosocial behavior: What do we (not) know?. Current Opinion in Psychology, 44, 151-156.


Wentzel, K. R. (2014). Prosocial behavior and peer relations in adolescence. In L. M. Padilla-Walker & G. Carlo (Eds.), Prosocial development: A multidimensional approach (pp. 178–200). Oxford University Press.


Wilson, J., & Musick, M. (1997). Who Cares? Toward an Integrated Theory of Volunteer Work. American Sociological Review, 62(5), 694–713. https://doi.org/10.2307/2657355



Visual Sources

Cover Image: Staglin, G., (2023), Cooperating on Workplace Mental Health in a Fragmented World, Canva


Figure 1: Tamm, L. (2021), How To Teach Your Kids Gratitude The Easy Way


Figure 2: Cassarino, P. L., (2020) Food Basket During Covid Pandemic


Figure 3: Garcia H., (2023), 5 Benefits of Volunteering for Children


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